Tuesday, September 8, 2009

complete information of rare species of nepal

Eastern Development Region
Pathibhara temple in Tapethok VDC (19kms from Kanchenjunga) is revered by both Hindus and Buddhists. Pathibhara lies at an altitude of 3,794 meters. An animist deity, it is believed that the devotee’s desires will be fulfilled with a sacrifice at the temple. The Pathibhara pilgrimage takes only three to four days with the best time to visit being March to June and September to November. Spectacular Kanchenjunga Range can also be observed.
Getting there The initial trek from Dharan follows that of the Kanchenjunga trek to Hile. If you fly from Kathmandu to Tumlingtar you can save at least 10 days. The bus ride from Kathmandu to Dharan takes between 11 and 13 hours and you should reserve a seat well in advance. Name of district Taplejung
Headquarters Taplejung
Bazar Area 3,158 sq.km.
Political Boundary East: Sikkim
West: Tehrathum & Sankhuwasabha North: Tibbet South: Tehrathum Major rivers Tamor, Kabeli, Punsa, Yangba, Panjong, Mewa, Mayumba and Maiya
Topography Location longitude: 870 32”- 880 15”
latitude: 270 15”-270 56” Climate Sub-tropical temperate, Cool Temperate, Alpine
Temperature Max. 20. 80 C Min. 11. 80 C.
Rainfall 1933. 3 mm
Predominant language, culture Nepali, Limbu, Sherpa, Rai, Gurung, Tamang, Newari,
Sunuwar, Magar, Abadhi, Danuwar, Maithili, Tharu, Satar.
Communication Telecommunication service and wireless
Tourist attraction centers Taplejung Bazaar, Olangchunggola, Dhunche, Langthung,
Yangma, Knoklng, Siddhidanda and Pathibhara.
Himalayan Peaks: Kanchanjangha, Khangwachen, Jannu, Jhongsang, Dom, Tent Peak,
Lakes and Ponds Sinjema(Manas Lake), Nurak Pokhari, Siwa Pokhari Kali
Pokhari, Rate Pkhari, Ewa Pokhari. Waterfall Eladanda Phedi, Tiptal
Accommodation facilities Hotel, lodges
Accessibility Road connections, Airways
Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health post, Ayurvedic Centers, clinics

Panchthar Aangsarang, in Panchthar district is a very beautiful place situated at a distance of about 3 and 4-hour walk from Ranke and Phidim, respectively. This is clustered with many other small beautiful destinations and the places of religious significance.
Name of district Panchthar Headquarters Phidim Area 1,244 sq.km. Political Boundary East: West Bengal and Sikkim (India) West: Dhankuta and Tehrathumest North: Taplejung South: Ilam and Morang. Major rivers Tamor, Hima Khola, Ima Khola, Namdu Khola, Kabeli, Nibhu Khola. Topography Location longitude: 870 30”- 880 2” Latitude: 260 50”- 270 28” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Cool- temperate Temperature Maximum: 220 C. Minimum: 150 C. Rainfall 2,289.9 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Tamang, Magar, Sunuwar, Bhote Sherpa, Newari, Abadhi, Tharu, Maithili, Bhojpuri Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Phidim, Jorsal Bazzar, Yasok, Rabi, Chyangthapu, Mehebote, Sukepokhari, Oyam. Lakes and Ponds Jore Pokhari, Suke Pkhari Waterfalls Namdu Mahamir, Ratmate, Baraha Pokhari Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge. Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic, Clinic.
The place lies over the beautiful hillock with a panoramic view of mountains, rivers and small valleys. The is very interesting place as it is a suffused with many myths and legends associated with the place itself and the people. In addition, many wonders and mysteries of nature can be witnessed, which give the place a great religious significance.
Phidim is a beautiful hill township, the district headquarters. The unique landscape surrounding the place and scenic beauty make it enchanting. In addition, typical socio-cultural structure, cultural varieties and congenial climate make the place remarkable for the visitors. Buses to Phidim are available at Birtamod and Ilam easily and standard hotels and inns are available for accommodation.
Situated in far eastern region, Ilam is called the place of sunrise because it is the first in Nepal to receive the sunrays every dawn. It is bordered by Darjeeling and Sikkim of India and Panchthar, Jhapa, Morang and Dhankuta districts of Nepal. Its population is more than 250,000 in 49 villages and one municipality. In addition to breathtaking view of sunrise and sunset, there are many interesting places to see and visit.
Mai Pokhari
Two kilometers drive towards north of Ilam leads to Mai Pokhari, situated at an altitude of 8,000 ft. It is situated at peaceful place surrounded by rhododendron bushes amidst lush green forest. The lake captivates the sightseers with jade clean water and multi color fishes flashing brilliantly. Small thatched huts of sages, temple of Lord Shiva, Mai temple, Satya Dhuni (incessant burn fire) guest houses and Sanskrit School are situated nearby. Festives are seeon only on Bodhini Ekadashi (the beginning of wakening of Lord Vishnu, according to Hindu mythology). Rest of the time, the place remains peaceful and secluded.
Hamang Ko Pokhari
In the Hamang VDC, near the temple of Myangmalung lake, with the peripheral area of one square mile, the lake is located amidst the bushes of rhododendron and other flowering plants. The lake being surrounded by dense forests, wild animals and birds like pheasants, and wild- cock, deer rabbits and panthers can often be seen in around the lake.
Jhayun Pokhari
Jhyaun Pokhari, lying at 5,000 ft. above the mean sea level, is situated in west of Ilam Bazaar. Peripheral area of the lake is 2 km2 at a distance of 30 km from main bazaar. There is a 10- meter tall mound at the middle of the lake. Temples of Dattatraya (a deity of the Hindus) and Dutta Falguna (a deity of the Mongols) stand on one side while Damain Danda surrounds the lake on the other.
Sandakpur, 12,000 ft. above sea level, is 4 km far from Ilam Bazaar. This hill touches the border with India. In addition to the breathtaking experience of sun-set and sun-rise, panoramic view of Kanchanjunga, Machhapuchhre, Mt. Everest and other Himalayan ranges can also be seen from the place.
Shree Antu Danda
Situated at an altitude of 1,677 meter, an ideal place for viewing sunrise and sunset. Forest and the ponds of the area are very attractive. This also offers the panoramic view of the Mt. Everest and Kanchanjangha of Nepal and Darjeeling, Khersang and Mirik of India. Because of its topography and scenic beauty, it is often compared with Darjeeling. A motorable road connects Ilam bazaar with Chipitar and from here, Antu Danda is at four-hour track walk.
Name of district Ilam Headquarters Ilam Bazaar Area 1571 sq.km. Political Boundary East: West Bengal West: Dhankuta and Morang North: Panchthar South: Jhapa Major rivers Mai, Jogmai, Puwamai, Deomai, Biring, Mechi and Siddikhola. Topographic location Longitude: 870 40”- 880 10” Latitude: 260 40”– 270 8” Climate Sub-tropical and temperate Temperature Maximum 21.80 C and Minimum 12.70 C Rainfall 1,329.7 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Tamang, Bhote, Sherpa, Sunuwar, Maithili, Danuwar, Bhojpuri. Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless, Cell Phone Tourist attraction centers Tea Estates, Ilam Bazaar, Maipkhari, Gajurmukhi, Sandakpur , Antudanda, Kanyam and Pasupati Nagar. Lakes and Ponds Mai Pokhari Waterfalls Todke, Soyang. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, and Restaurant. Accessibility Road Connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Siddhi Thumka
Siddhi Thumka, 5,500 ft. above the sea level, can be reached through 15 km foot-trail and 30 km motorable road from Ilam Bazaar. Apart from the incomparable view of sunset and sunrise, one can have the view of many memorable places like Damain Danda, Jhyaun Pokhari, cave-temple of the goddess Gajurmukhi, the cave of Khandrung and Lindentar. Lindentar being a very wide plain, local people believe that an airport of international standard can be constructed.
The Cave of Khandrung
The cave lies at an altitude of 5,000 ft. Places like Siddithumka, Jhayaun Pokhari and Damain Danda are nearby. The cave comprises of cabins of different shape and size. The opening is wide enough for the human beings to enter and surprisingly the exit holes open at the peak of the hill.
The Cave of Pang Situated at an altitude of 5,000 ft., the cave is extraordinary lying at the distance of ten minutes walk from the stone gateway of the cave; there is black hole underneath. Splashing sound can be heard if stones are thrown into it. Many myths exist in the locality about the pond.
Pushe Cave
This cave is at the distance of four-hour walk from Ilam Bazaar. A temple of Siddhi Devi (a goddess of Hindu) stands inside it.
The cave of Evang
The cave can be approached from Bhedetar of Dhankuta and Ilam. Ponds, dense forest and the hills of Myangmalung make it more memorable. You can have panoramic view of the Himalayas from this place as well. Opening of the cave is wide enough for the human being to enter. It takes more than 30 minutes to walk from the opening to the end. Ruins of legendary Limbu kingdom are said to be found in the vicinity.
Ilam is the core area for tea plantation. Tea with export qualities are produced here. Inspite of granule tea, Ilam produces best quality tealeaves. There are more than a score of tea-estates, big and small, of great economic values that add impressive beauty to the place.

Damak is a small municipality town in Jhapa district. It is located at the either side of the East-west Mahendra Highway, which touches the eastern and western boarder of the country. Inhabited mostly by the people of Indo- Aryan and Burmese origin, Damak town serves as one of the major trade centers in the district. People from the northern mountain district come here to sell their goods such as seasonal fruit, herbs, hand woven woolen carpets etc. in the weekly bazaar on Wednesday. Some very interesting place with the attraction of culture and sightseeing in inner Jhapa and Morang can also be approached conveniently from Damak. Damak itself is situated in beautiful setting. Tea gardens here are worth seeing.
Bhadrapur-Chanragadhi Jhapa
Located 17 km. south of the east west Highway crossing through Birtamod, in the eastern region, old town of Bhadrapur is the headquarters of Jhapa district. The place once inhabited by the indigenous tribes such as Rajbanshi, Satar, Santhal, Dhimal and Meche, the people of almost all the races and casts of Nepal are found now. Thus the place offers a good opportunity for cultural tour.
Birtamod is a fast growing township on the cross road of East –West highway and Bhadrapur –Taplejung road. The town lies 16 km west of Kakarbhitta, the border town and entry point in eastern Nepal. Bus journey to Ilam, Phiidm and Taplejung begins here; buses are available only up to 2 pm at an interval of two hours.
Kakarbhitta, a boarder township, is the entry point in the eastern Nepal. The ministry of tourism operates an information centre here and the visitors entering Nepal from this point can obtain trekking permits for eastern region.
Pashupatinagar is a small hill-town close to the Indo- Nepal boarder in the east. The place is linked with Darjeeling and Sikkim in India by road. As the place is surround by beautiful green hills, forest with thatched villages houses, the place could be the good choice for the sight seers.
Name of district Jhapa Headquarters Chandragadhi Area 1532 sq. km. Political Boundary East: West Bengal West: Morang District North: Ilam South: Bihar Major rivers Kankai, Mechi, Biring, Ratuwa, Kamal, Ninda, Aduwakhola. Topography Location longitude: 870 39”– 880 12” Latitude: 260 20”- 260 50” Climate Sub-tropical Temperate Temperature Maximum 30.60 C, Minimum 14 . 20 C. Rainfall 2,518.7 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rajbanshi, Satar, Limbu, Rai, Maithili, Newari, Tharu, Tamang, Magar, Santhali, Danuwar, Gurung, Bhote Sherpa, Sunuwar, Abadhi, Bhojpuri. Communication Postal services, Telephone, Wireless, Cell Phones Tourist attraction centers Chandragadhi, Bhadrapur, Sanischare, Damak, Budhbabare Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Airways, Roads Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Gupteshwor Mahadev, situated at Jaljale VDC of Sankhuwsabha district, is a shrine of god Shiva inside a natural cave. The gate to the cave is small but enough to get inside. The cave is wide enough to accommodate some 200 people at a time. The cave can be approached only with light.
Inside the cave, there is a phallic symbol of God Shiva. The phallus is continually showered with milky-water from an image like of a cow. A religious fair is held at the place on the occasion of Thuli Ekadasi in the month of Kartik (late October- early November)
Sabha Pokhari
Situated at the base of Lumba Sumba Himal in Sankhuwasabha district, at an altitude of 4,240 meters above sea level, Sabha Pokhari is the natural lake having religious significance. Hindu mythology mention that a wise ascetic ‘Byasa’ (writer of VEDAS, holy scriptures of Hindu) once organized a gathering of all 88 thousand of sages, saint and ascetics and delivered a speech how human being can acquire peace in life time and attain heaven after death. The lake is situated in an extra ordinary natural setting with immensely beautiful landscape. The site is good for trekking.
Situated north of Tumlingtar in Sankhuwasabha district on the eastern bank of Arun river, the temple of Manakamana Devi (a goddess Durga) enshrines the ancient stone images of Manakamana Devi Nava Durga Bhagawati (Durga in her original form), God Mahadev (Shiva), God Ganesh (son of Shiva and Parvati) along with many more images. A great religious fair is held at this place on the occasion of Thuli Ekadasi. People from far and near in large number gather here to participate in the fair and festival.
Makalu-Barun national park and conservation area Size: 2,330 sq. km (900 sq. miles) Geographical location: The park and conservation area is situated in the Sankhuwasbha and Solukhumbu districts, bordered by the Arun River in the east, Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park and to the west, the Nepal- China border in the north and the Saune Danda (rigid) to the south. This is the only protected area in Nepal with a strict nature reserve.
Vegetation: The park has some of the country’s richest and unique pockets of plants and animals. There are 75 varieties of orchids, 67 species of valuable aromatic plants, 25 of Nepal’s 30 varieties of rhododendron, 19 species of
bamboo, and 15 oaks including Arkhoulo, 86 species of fodder trees and 48 species of primrose.
Fauna: Over 400 species of birds have been sighted in the Makalu- Barun area, including two species never before seen in Nepal. The spotted wildlife includes the endangered red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black deer, clouded leopard and possibly the snow leopard, in addition to more substantial populations of ghoral, Himalayan tarh, wild boar, barking deer, Himalayan marmot and weasel, common langur monkey and the serow.
Name of district Sankhuwasabha Headquarters Khandbari Area 3177 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Taplejung and Tehrathum West: Bhojpur and Solokhumbu North: Tibet South: Dhankuta Major rivers Arun, Barun, Sabha, Sankhuwa, Pongtha, Heema, Piluwa, Mewa, Eva, Woranga, Topography Location longitude: 880 57”- 890 41” Latitude: 270 10” – 270 55” Climate Tropical and Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 29.00 C, Minimum: 70 C Rainfall 1441 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu, Newari, Gurung, Magar, Abadhi, Maithili, Sunuwar, Rajbanshi Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Chainpur, Chhyankuti Bhanjyang, Humung, Khandbari, Madibirta, Tumlintar, Sabhapokhari, Panchpokhari, Barabise, Pangtha, Chandanpur, Hedangna, Himalayan Peaks Makalu, Lumbasumba, Kumbhakarna, Lakes and Ponds Sabha Pokhari, Gosa Pokhari, Rota Pokhari, Banduke Pokhari, Kala Pokhari, Jumlyaha Pokhari, Panch Pokhari, Kapdane Pokhari Waterfalls Bodha, Waling, Namase, Batase, Tanglewa Accommodation facilities Local lodges Accessibility Airways, Road Connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post and Clinics
Hatuwagadhi Hatuwagadhi in Bhojpur district has great historical significance, being the capital of Kirat kingdom called Majh Kirant before the unification of Nepal by Shah Kings. The place is situated at Ranibas VDC, 30 km south of the district headquarters. Bhojpur Bazaar is located at an altitude of about 6,000 ft. above the sea level. The place still has the ruins of ancient capital and forts. These ruins have greater archaeological, architectural and historical significance. Besides, the place is adorned with a unique landscape that makes the place all the time attractive. Panoramic views of Himalayas green hills, rivers, deep gorges and valleys are regular scenes. It is thrilling experience to see such things from a place in such a low altitude. The other thing that adds to its attraction is the unique culture of the people inhabiting the place and the vicinity.
Golma Raja Golma Rani It is situated in Bhojpur district, the place is famous for its unique natural setting. A myth associated with the place says that the whole marriage processing of king Golma disappeared when it reached that this place in the ancient time. The images in the stone cliff very similar to that of the procession can still be seen.
Name of district Bhojpur Headquarters Bhojpur Bazar Area 1854 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Dhankuta and Sankhuwasabha West: Solukhumbu and Khotang North: Solukhumbu and Sankhuwasabha South: Udayapur Major rivers Arun, Sunkoshi, Shankhuwa, Pikhuwa, Chirkhuwa, Bukhimand Aduwakhola Topography Location Longitude: 860 53” –880 17” Latitude: 260 53”–270 46” Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical, temperate, cool- temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum 20.50 C Minimum 13.50 C Rainfall 1208.6 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Newari, Magar, Tamang, Maithili, Gurung, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Limbu Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Chhinamamako, Bhojpur, Dingla, Hatuwagadhi, Taksari, Tyamke Himalayan Peaks Chamlang Himalaya, Sabane Khampalung Lakes and Ponds Salpa Pokhari, Kala Pokhari,Hansa Pokhari, Panchakanya Pokhari Waterfall Changa(Chirkuwa Khola), Teen Chhanga Jugu Bokhim Accommodation facilities Local lodges Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic center and Clinics
Basantapur Bazaar Basantapur is a beautiful hill township in Terhathum district. The place stands as the starting point for trekking in Terhathum, Taplejung and Sankhuwasabha districts. All main tracks to the places are linked here so the place is of great importance for local people too.
The bazaar itself is located in a unique natural setting and is surrounded by a rhododendron forest. In addition, unobstructed view of the Himalayan peaks such as Makalu, Jannu and Kanchanjunga can be seen in clear days.
Myanglung Bazaar Situated 12 km east of Basantapur, Mayanglung bazaar is the headquarters of Terhathum district. The district being inhabited mostly by the Limbus, it manifests the richness and attractions of unique Limbu culture. Known as the capital of Limbu state in history, the place has a great historical significance.
Sakaranti Bazaar It is the main place of the eastern Terhathum. Located in a beautiful natural setting, the place is marked for beautiful view of the Himalayas and Taplejung district. There is a historically important place called Chuhandanda, 4 km east of the market place. In addition, Sankaranti bazaar is an ideal place to observe various aspects of Limbu culture.
Milke Danda On the way to Taplejung is another popular rhododendron forest known by the name Milke Danda (2,905m.) Milke Danda provides a closer view of the Kanchenjunga and Kumbhakarna mountains and good view of sunrise and sunset when weather is clear. It is trekking trail between Taplejung and Basantapur Bazaar.
Hyatrung Waterfall Located between Eisibu and Samdu VDCs of Terhathum district, it is the highest waterfall of the country. It is at the distance of one-day walk from Mayanglung. Visitors have to find shelter with the local people or in small teashops.
Marga Pokhari Marga Pokhari, situated at Hamarjung VCD of Terhathum district, is a natural pond surrounded by a lush green forest full of birds and wild flowers. It is one of the attractions of the district.
Name of district Tehrathum Headquarters Myanglung Bazaar Area 918 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Panchthar and Taplejung West: Dhankuta and Sankhuwasabha North: Taplejung and Sankhuwasabha South: Dhankuta Major rivers Tamor Lumu, Khoranga, Koya, Mewa. Location longitude: 870 25” – 870 45” latitude: 260 59”–270 30” Climate Sub-tropical, temperate and Cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 300 C Minimum: 150 C. Rainfall 1250.8 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Limbu, Tamang, Sherpa, Magar, Newari, Gurung, Rai, Maithili, Tharu, Sunuwar, Rajbanshi, Satar Communication Post office, Telephone, wireless Tourist attraction centers Basantpur, Chohandanda Sankrantidanda, Tehrathum Bazaar and Myanglung Bazaar Lakes and Ponds Chilling Pokhari, Tiche Pokhari, Siddhamarga, Pokhari, Chitre Pokhari, Lam Pokhari Waterfalls Mewa Khola, Lumu Khola Accommodation facilities Road connection Accessibility Local lodges Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health post and clinics
Dhankuta Situated 56 km north of Dharan, Dhankuta is a beauty town popularly called the queen of the hills because of its scenic beauty. The municipal town of Dhankuta is the headquarters of Dhankuta district and the Eastern Development Region. The place lies in the middle of the region and stands as the commercial centre for northern districts.
In addition there is a unique blend of Newari, Kiranti and Indo-Aryan culture which makes the place worth visiting.
Dhankuta wand on a ridge in the hills, pleasantly cool at an elevation of 1,200 meters (4,000 feet) above sea level and is famous for its orange groves and leafy scenery punctuated by many mountain streams, their crystal-clear waters between grassy banks lined with pine and oak forests. It is also the base for trekking in the Kanchenjunga region. Astride the Sikkim border with eastern Nepal, Kanchenjunga is the world’s third-highest mountain, and the 16-day journey depends on absolute fitness and acclimatization, as it takes the trekker from the subtropical lowlands to a height of more than 5,000 meters (16,000 feet) above sea level, around the base of some magnificent satellite peaks to Yalung glacier.
Getting there A modern motor road winds its way from Dharan to Dhankuta. On foot, it takes about five hours to climb 32 kilometers (20 miles), via Bijaypur to this ancient Newar town. Or you can trek off the road. It takes two days and one night to reach Dhankuta, through many small wayside hamlets, with tea houses and bazaars.
Hile It is situated at about 13 kilometers north of Dhankuta Bazaar, the headquarters of the district by the same name. The place is famous for its scenic beauty and the panoramic view of Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest), Malakhu, Lotshe and Kumbhakarna mountains.
Bhedetar Bhedetar, a small hill station, is situated 16 km north of Daran in Bhedetar VDC over a flat hillock at an altitude of 1,430 meter. The place is famous for its suitably cool weather. The panoramic view of the Himalayas, hills, the plain in the south, the Saptakoshi river and Dharan bazaar can be seen from a tall point, named after Prince Charles of the UK when he visited the place.
The place is also important for the fact that it stands as the gateway to Dhankuta and Panchthar district. In addition, the famous temple of Goddess Pathibhara stands 3 km west of the place. The temple can be accessed only by foot.
Rajarani Rajarani a beautiful valley like place, is situated 16 km. east of Vedetar in Rajarani VDC. The place has historical significance: also believed to be the capital of Limbu kingdom in the past. There are two plain areas, which were once ponds called Raja and Rani. Situated at an altitude of 1,600 m above sea level, the place has congenial climate and offers spectacular views of the Tarai in the south and majestic Himalayan peaks in the north.
Uttarpani Situated 3 km west of Hile in Belhara VDC, Uttarpani is a small bazaar. Rhododendron forest, ponds and pasture lands beautify the place. More importantly, unobstructed view of the Himalayas to the north adds attraction to it. The motorable road to the place forks at Hile. Small inns and hotels here serve the visitors.
Sinduwa Situated east of Hile bazaar in Tankhuwa VDC of the district, Sinduwa is a small but beautiful establishment with surprising scenic beauty. Himalayan ranges are seen in the north and a lush green forest beautifies the surrounding area, thus the place is worth visiting.
Pakhribass It is an agricultural firm situated in a beautiful place to the northwest of Hile. A visit to the place is rewarding as it provides an opportunity to have a glimpse of the project dedicated to agriculture development in Nepal with the aid of the British government.
Name of district Dhankuta Headquarters Dhankuta Bazzar Area 871 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Terhathum and Panchthar West: Bhojpur North: Sankhuwasabha South: Morang and Sunsari Major rivers Arun, Tamor, Leguwa, Mangmaya, Banchare, Leuti Location Longitude: 87 0 8” - 87 0 33” Latitude: 26 0 53” – 27 0 19” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Cool- temperate Temperature Maximum: 21.5 0 C Minimum: 15. 4 0 C Rainfall 802.6 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Tamang, Newari, Bhote Sherpa, Maithili, Gurung, Tharu, Sunuwar, Bhojpuri, Abadhi. Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Chintang, Dhankuta Bazaar, Danda Bazzar, Khoku, Muga, Paripatle, Pakhribas, Vedetar. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Dharan Bazaar The focal point of this region, lying at the base of the evergreen Vijaypur hills, is Dharan bazaar. An unusual feature of town life is the Union Jack that flies over one of the squat single-storey buildings. This is one of the British Army Gurkha recruiting centers in Nepal. Wiry teenagers from the hills continue a long and noble tradition, enlisting usually for life while older generations, now retired, make the long trek each month from the same hills to pick up their pensions. A tough physical examination limits the number of recruits but those who succeed are fitted out with new uniforms and flown abroad for 10 months’ basic training, thereafter returning home for their first leave to a hero’s welcome from their relatives and neighbors. The new recruits walk through Dharan smiling proudly and browsing among the market stalls in the old town, where vendors peddle oranges, butter, and herbs. The orchards of the Vijaypur Hills are rich and productive, and surplus fruit is preserved in a recently established canning factory. Access is by bus from Biratnagar through Itahari. Dharan is also the base for trekking to Makalu region.
Trekking in Makalu One of the toughest treks in the world takes you from Dharan through the subtropical floor of the Arun Valley and over the Shipton Pass to the slopes of the three great peaks of Makalu, Everest, and Lhotse.
Vijayapur Vijayapur is a flat Churiya hillock which uninterruptedly overlooking the flat green Tarai on its south and the city of Dharan in conch-shell shape. It lies at a distance of about 3 kilometers north-east of the main Dharan city. Clustered and enshrined with many important temples of the region such as Pindeshwor, Dantakali, Panchakanya Budhasubba, Sitaladevi, Shiddhivinatak and Bhimesnsthan, Vijayapur is the most important pilgrimage site in the region. Situated very near to Dharan, Vijayapur is naturally adorned with typical geo-topography and has a congenial climatic condition. It is a historical township form where the rulers in the historic age used to run administration, including the Sen Dynasty. The ancient artifacts adornment of Vijatapur is now disappearing. Valued by Hindus from prehistoric period as the place where ‘pancha pandavs’ conducted ‘Maha Yagya’ in ‘Dwapar Era’ (Era with Krishna as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu during the Mahabharata age), Vijayapur is equally holy place for mongols where shrine of Buda Subba exists. To reach there from Dharan, it takes only 45 minutes climbing. Cars on rent are also available at the Dharan Bus park.
Dantakali Temple Situated in the middle of the beautiful hillock of Vijayapur in Dharan, the holy temple of Dantakali is famous among the Hindus as the place where lie the sacred teeth of the goddess Satidevi, the consort of the great God Shiva. The Hindu myths and the legends say the after the death of Satidevi, bereaved Mahadev, the other name for Lord Shiva, carried the dead body on his shoulder and walked incessantly in utter agony. Parts of the dead body feel off at different places as he walked on and the teeth feel in the place where the temple stands now. The holy book of ‘Swasthani Brata Katha’ asserts this and gives the name Dantakali literally Danta meaning teeth and ‘kali’ one of the various forms of Goddess Durga. Thousands of devotees from far and near gather here with great religious fervor. The first nine days of Dashain see great crowds offering worship and sacrifice of goats and other animals and birds. The place is good for sightseeing too.
Pindeshwor Temple The temple of Pindeshwor situated at Vijayapur is famous pilgrimage site of the eastern Nepal. It is located a little below Dantakali temple of Dharan. This temple contains a Shiva Linga called Pindeshwor.
Budha Subba Situated amidst the tall trees and bamboo groves, the temple of Budha Subba is one of the four major temples at Vijayapur. Unlike many other Hindu temples with the images of gods and goddesses, the temple enshrines three tomblike mounds believed to be the tombs of king Buddhikarna, the last king of the then state of Vijayapur and his family killed by the rulers of Shah dynast of Gorkha in 1832 B.S. Another legend about the temple mention that an enlightened old Mongolian (Limbu) Tantric came here wandering from Chulachuli and discarded his body in the place where the temple stands now. Very old earthen ball found here is taken as the proof of the legend. Therefore, facts and legends are the subjects of historical studies. The place offers an unique example of religious harmony as the Mongolian deity especially of the Kirants is worshipped with equal religious fervor by both the Indo-Aryans and the Kirantis. In addition you can have some miraculous observations: bamboos do not have pointed top; gnat and crows are never seen in the territory and dew drops never fall. People in large number from far and near always congregate here to pay homage and offer sacrifice of goats, hen eggs, buffaloes, pigs, ducks etc. The devotees come here to worship and offer the sacrifice after their wishes are granted, it is said.
Vishnu Paduka Vishnu Paduka, situated 8 km north- west of Dharan, is one of the most ancient places of Hindu pilgrimage. On the foot of the Mahabharata hill, near the origin of the Koka river, stands the small temple of Vishnu Paduka, which enshrines a stone with a foot print on it, believed to be that of Lord Vishnu. Hindua congregate here in thousands to pay homage to the souls of their ancestors. The significance of the place is not less than that of Gaya in India. The temple is, thus, sometimes referred to as Uttar Gaya. The Hindu scriptures have it that Lord Vishnu himself along with his consort Laxmi offered worships to the omnipresent ancestors. The river Koka and the forest nearby add beauty to the place and it is growing popular among the sightseers as well. Remnants of the ‘Kirant age’ found here add to its religious importance.
Panchakanya Temple Panch mans five and kanya means virgin girls, from where the temple derives its name. It is the temple of five goddesses: Draupadi, Tara, Manju, Kunti and Parvati. Situated 1 km north of Vijayapur square, it is a historical temple supposed to have built by a king of Sen Dynasty, Narendra Sen in the 16th century. Dilapidated by the earthquake in 1988, the temple was renovated later. A beautiful evergreen forest surrounds the temple where peace, tranquility and the beauty of nature reign. Devotees flock there in thousands with the staunch belief that the deities there bless the deaf, dumb and blind children with speech, hearing and eyesight. Besides, large number of nature lovers and picnic groups come here to enjoy the beauty of nature.
Varahakshetra Varahakshetra is located at the confluence of Sapta Koshi and Koka rivers in Sunsari district. Though solitude and shadowed, it is one of the most famous pilgrimage site of the Hindus from the time immemorial. It is among the four holy Chhetra of Hindu pilgrims. Two of the Chhetra, Varahakshetra and Muktinath, are in Nepal. Others lie in India. Varaha or the boar is the third of ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. It is believed that it was the Varaha form of Lord Vishnu that saved the earth from the deluge. Puranas and Vedas state that Varahakshetra of Nepal is the main site where the Varaha form of Lord Vishnu originated.
The Arun Valley Closed to the ridge on which Dhankuta stands lies one of Nepal’s most remote and beautiful regions. Nowhere are the country’s stunning scenic contrasts more sharply defined than in the Arun valley, in the shadows of the Khumbu Harkna Himal, beneath Makalu’s daunting 8,481-metre (27,825 ft) peak, where the wide, lazy Arun River meanders along the valley floor.
The river bestows a mantle of verdant green and nourishes the cool leafy trees which provide shade all along this enchanted valley and its many neighboring valleys, all as lovely. Its villages have remained unchanged for centuries. A short distance northward above the tree-clad hills rise the world’s mightiest mountains, at its lowest levels the valley could be in Africa. The bare red earth is dotted with stunted, semi-arid, savannah grass. Groves of succulents and stands of banana trees repeat the African image.
The heat of the sun’s rays, funneled into the valley by the rising hills, is merciless. Brick makers use it to bake their product for the thatched cottages on the hillsides. In the north, the valley is bounded by the snow- covered 4,100-metre (13,500-foot) Shipton pass — beyond which lie the mountains surrounding the three great peaks of Everest, Makalu and Lhotse. Anglers delight in the Ishwa valley, its slopes thick with rhododendrons and magnolias and its mountain streams alive with fish. Barun is another valley, its walls a tangled jungle of undergrowth, with rushing streams and plunging waterfalls, forms an amphitheatre, with the distant Makalu centre-stage. It was in one of the rivers in this area — at a height of almost 5,000 meters (17,000 feet) — that a wildlife expert discovered what may well be the only high- altitude salamander in the world.
Getting there The initial trek from Dharan follows that of the Kanchenjunga trek to Hile. If you fly from Kathmandu to Tumlingtar you can save at least 10 days. The bus ride from Kathmandu to Dharan takes between 11 and 13 hours and you should reserve a seat well in advance.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve Size: 305 sq km. (118 sq. miles) Geographic allcation: on the flood plains of the Sapta-Koshi in Saptari and Sunsari Districts of Nepal. The reserve is defined by the eastern and western embankments of the river. Vegetation: Mainly sand with a few patches of scrub forest and deciduous mixed riverine forest. Fauna: The reserve offers important habitat for a variety of wildlife. The last surviving wild buffalo are found there. Hog deer, wild boar, spotted deer and blue bull and 208 different species of birds have been recorded. These include 20 species of duck, two species of ibis, many storks, egrets and herons. The Koshi Barrage is extremely important as a resting place for migratory birds. Many species recorded there are not seen elsewhere in Nepal. Also seen are the endangered gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin in the Koshi River.
Inaruwa Inaruwa, a small municipal town, is headquarters of Sunsari district. It is located at distance of about 20 km south of Dharan and 38 km west of Itahari. Importance of this place is also due its proximity to Koshi Tappu reserve and Koshi barrage.
Name of district Sunsari Headquarters Inruawa Area 1265 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Morang West: Saptari and Udayapur North: Dhankuta South: Bihar Major rivers Koshi, Sunsari, Budhikhola, Pikhuwa and Sharada . Location longitude: 870 5” … latitude: 260 23” –260 55” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical ,Temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.60 C Minimum: 14. 20 C Rainfall 1943 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali , Tharu, Maithali, Rai, Newari, Limbu, Tamang, Magar, Abadhi, Gurung, Satar, Bhojpuri, Bhote Sherpa, Sunuwar, Dnauwar, Santhali. Communication Post office, Telephones Tourist attraction centers Dharan, Inaruwa,Itahari, Duhabi,Budhasubba, Dantakali, Barahakshetra, Ghopa Camp Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, and Guesthouse Accessibility Road Connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Health Center, Ayurvedic Centre and Clinics
Biratnagar Situated 540 kilometers east of Kathmandu in Koshi Zone, Biratnagar is the second largest city of Nepal. Some of the largest industries are located here. It is an industrial zone. One can make trips to Dharan and Barahakshetra with Biratnagar as the base. The place is easily accessible as it is linked with Kathmandu both by air and roads.
Around Biratnagar Attraction on the western sides of city includes green paddies fields, jute fields, flood plains and marshes. Along the Indian border, the massive Kosi Dam impounds the Sun Kosi River, which is fed by the Tamar River from the slopes of Kancherijunga and the Arun River from the snows of Makalu.
Built by India, the dam is one of Nepal’s major hydroelectric projects. Besides controlling unpredictable floods and generating much of the country’s energy, it created new wetlands that form the Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve.
There you can see one of the few remaining herds of wild water buffalo and thousands of migratory birds. There are no tourist accommodations in the reserve, the nearest being in Biratnagar.
Name of district Morang Headquarters Biratnagar Area 1914 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Jhapa and Ilam West: Sunsari North: Dhankuta and Panchthar South: Bihar Major rivers Ratuwa, Bakraha, Lhandra , Singia and Budhi Location longitude: 870 16”- 870 41” latitude: 260 20” – 260 53” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical and Temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.60 C. Minimum: 42.20 C Rainfall 1312.8 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Maithali, Tharu, Rajbanshi, Rai,Limbu,Satar, Magar, Newari, Tamang, Santhali, Bhojpuri, Bhote Sherpa, Danuwar, Gurung, Sunuwar Abadhi Communication Post office, Telephone, Internet Tourist attraction centers Biratnagar, Rangeli, Haraincha, Madhumalla, Chisapani, Bhanjyang, Rani area Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection and Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Solukhumbu Trekking in the eastern region of Nepal provides a wide range of wilderness and cultural encounter especially in the Everest region. Many choose to live out their dreams by standing at the foot Mount Everest (8,848m) still other prefer a middle ground south of the Khumbu such as Solu.
Walking through the middle hill of Solu and trekking in the higher altitude of the Khumbu to the base of Sagarmatha or Mt. Everest, the world’s highest peak, is an opportunity to observe and participate in the daily life of the legendary Sherpa people. The Sherpa people, who rank among hardiest and most egalitarian people in the world, are as great attraction as the mountains.
Solu or Sho Rung as the Sherpas call it, lies between 2,600 m and 3,200m of elevation, extending from Jiri to the Dhudh Koshi River. The climate a temperate, forest and pasture land are well watered, farmland cultivated with maize, wheat, barley and apple.
Mt. Everest is the prime attraction of Solokhumbu. New trekking trails in the area are Dhudhkunda -Kaling, Rai – Pikey Trail. Other additional recreating features include Himalayan lifestyle, culture and a wide range of nature experience.
Namche Bazar Situated on the lap of Khumbu Himal at the distance of 241 kilometers from Kathmandu, Namche Bazar is the homeland of the Sherpas, the birth place of mountaineers.
Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park And Ponds Of Sagarmatha Areas Unique among natural heritage sites worldwide is the Sagarmatha National Park, which includes Mt. Everest (8,848m) and other high peaks such as Lhotse Shar, Cho Oyu, Ama Dablam, Pumori, Kangtega, Gyachung Kang, Thamserku and Kwangde. Located northeast of Katmandu, the park has an area of 1,148 sq km consisting of the upper catchment areas of the Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi and the Imja Rivers. Much of the park lies above 3,000m. Sagarmatha is rugged with deep gorges, glaciers and non-negotiable ice and rock faces. Locally known as the ‘Khumbu’, it is the home of the famous Sherpa people. The Sherpas make a living by farming barley and potatoes and graze their yaks in high altitude pastures. Young Sherpas have also made their name in mountaineering, and the trekking industry has of late become the community’s economic mainstay. In 1979 the park was declared a World Heritage Site.
Trees such as rhododendron, birch, blue pine, juniper and silver fir are found up to an altitude of 4,000m, which they give way to scrub and alpine plants. In late spring and summer, the hillsides around the villages of Namche Bazzar, Khumjung, Thyangboche and Thame are a riot of colors with several species of rhododendron in full bloom.
Wildlife most likely to be seen in Sagarmatha is the Himalayan thar, goral, musk deer, pikka (mouse hare) weasel and occasionally jackals. Other rarely seen animals are Himalayan black bear, wolf, lynx and snow leopard. Birds commonly seen are lmpeyan pheasant, blood pheasant, snow cock, snow pigeon, red billed and yellow-billed cough, Himalayan griffon vulture and lammergeirer.
Access All of Khumbu region is without roads; you must undertake all travels and exploration on foot. Quick access is via the Lukla airstrip from where the park of Namche Bazzar is a two-day walk. Alternative approaches are from the Jiri in the southwest and through Arun Valley in the November and from March to May when days are warm and clear. However, night temperatures can reach up to zero. A two to three weeks stay in the park is ideal and the best areas to visit are Gokyo Valley and Thame Valley. Travelers should come with camping, food and fuel support to enable them to move freely although room and board are available in most villages. To enjoy the visit thoroughly it is best to arrange services of guides and porters with government registered companies in Kathmandu.
Name of district Solukhumbu Headquarters Salleri Bazzar Area 3594sq. km. Political Boundary East: Sankhuwasabha, Bhojpur and Khotang West: Dolakha and Ramechhap. North: Tibet South: Khotang and Okhaldhunga. Major rivers Dudhkoshi, Howang,Inakhu, Linkhu,Lumadi and Solu. Location longitude: 860 22”- 870 03” latitude: 270 20”- 280 06” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Cool temperate, and Alpine. Temperature Maximum: 11.50 C. Minimum: 1. 80 C. Rainfall 1743.5 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Sherpa , Tamang, Newari, Danuwar, Magar, Gurung, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Maithili, Tharu, Abadhi Communication Post office, wireless Tourist attraction centers Dingboche, Pikelhabsang Karboo, Thami, Thyangboche, Khumjung, Namche Bazzar and Nele Himalayan Peaks Mt. Everest, Lotse, Gyachangang, Tuptche, Pumori, Amanglam,Chyamlang Lakes and Ponds Dudhkunda, Dudh Pokhari,Goke Pokhari, Jalim Pokhari, Namche Pokhari, Salpa Pokhari Accommodation facilities Local Hotels Accessibility Road, Airways Medical facilities Hospital Health Post, Health center and Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Okhaldhunga Chandi Devi Chandi Devi is one of the various forms of Goddess Durga (the goddess of power). The worship of Chandi Devi is an example of the assimilation of Tibeto- Bharman and Indo-Aryan religion. This sect is more influenced by Tantric traditions and is observed mostly in the various places of the district.
Tolu Gumba Situated in Jantarkhani VDC, Tolu Gumba is a place of pilgrimage for Buddhists, especially Sherpa people. The monastery, standing in a very beautiful and attractive place, enshrines brass, wooden and concrete image of Lord Buddha and is a place worth visiting.
Chandisthan Gupha West of the district headquarters of Okhaldhunga, at Ragini VDC, the cave is regarded as a mysterious place of religious significance. Hot wind blows all the time in this approximately 299 ft. long cave and nearly 100 ft. of the interior can be approached with the assistance of artificial lighting.
Name of district Okhaldhunga Headquarters Okhaldhunga Bazzar Area 1061 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Khotang West: Ramechhap North: Solukhumbu South: Udayapur and Sindhuli Major rivers Sunkoshi, Dudhkoshi, Malung, Sera, Sepli and Thothekhola. Location longitude: 860 10” – 860 14” latitude: 270 6” – 270 32” Climate Temperate and Cool temperate Temperature Maximum; 20-210 C. Minimum: 11-120 C Rainfall 2025 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Rai, Tamang, Magar, Sherpa, Newari, Sunuwar, Gurung, Satar, Maithili, Limbu, Abadhi, Bhojpuri Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Okhaldhunga, Rumjatar, Kudkabeniand Kakani, Waterfalls Pakali, Salabu, Dhikure, Serna, Ratamate Bhuseni, Sepli Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health center, Health Post, Ayurvedic center, Clinics
Halesi Mhadev Two feet Shiva Linga enshrines the cave. To the immediate north of this Shiva Linga, there are two pillars, which stand very close to each other, making a narrow pass. It is commonly believed that the sinners cannot pass through this narrow passage and a confession only enables them to pass through. Thousand of devotees from far and near come here to offer worship to Mahadev (Lord Shiva) as it is believed this Halesi Mahadev blesses children and poor with prosperity and the virtuous with knowledge and wisdom.
Baraha Pokhari (lake) Situated at Baraha Pokhari VDC in Khotang district, the lake has historical and religious significance. According to the Hindu mythology, the lake was created in the time immemorial by God Baraha (the third incarnation of Lord Vishnu in the form of a wild boar.)
The 800 m long and 500m wide lake lies at an altitude of about 1700m above the sea level and has remained as the centre of attraction in the district. Color of the water in the lake changes with seasons and colorful fish of different kinds can be seen in the lake. Lush green forest and magnificent hills around make the place fascinating.
Kalikadevi temple The temple is situated at the headquarters of Khotang district, Diktel. Devotees visit the place throughout the year and offer sacrifice of goats. Close to the temple is a mysterious small cave, which enshrines the symbolic image of Lord Shiva.
Dhodreshwor Mahadev Situated at Ratanchha VDC ward No. 2, holy cave, Dhodreshwor is a place of religious significance as well as a great wonder of nature. The cave, which is wide enough to accommodate 700 people at a time, enshrines several symbolic images of gods and goddess along with phallic image of God Shiva on its walls. The cave has gateways on its west and north, an unfathomable tunnel to the east and an opening to the sky near the northern gateway, which provides light to the cave. Name of district Khotang Headquarters Diktel Area 1265 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Bhojpur West: Okhaldhunga North: Solukhumbu South: Udayapur Major rivers Dudhkoshi, Sunkoshi, Rawa , Sawa and Sapsu Location Longitude: 860 26”- 860 59” Latitude: 260 50”– 270 28” Climate Temperate, Cool temperate. Temperature Maximum: 19.90 C Minimum: 13.40 C Rainfall 1304.9 ml Predominant culture Nepali, Rai, Newari, Tamang, Magar, Sherpa, Gurung, Maithili Tharu, Bhojpuri, Rajbanshi, Abadhi Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Diktel, Khotang, Halesi Mahadevsthan, Buipa, Lamidanda, Sapsudhap and Ravuwa Himalayan Peaks Maiyu, Merung, Tyamke Lakes and Ponds Baraha Pokhari Waterfalls Deeprung Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic
Indreshwor Mahadev Temple Situated 1 km north of Gaighat, the headquarters of Udayapur district, the temple of Indreshwor Mahadev (Lord Shiva) is regarded as holy as Pashupatinath in Kathmandu. The other good aspects of the temple is that even the non Hindus are allowed to enter the temple and worship.
Trivenidham At the confluence the three rivers Kamala, Tawa and Dudhauli in Udayapur district, Hindu people from far near congregate in large number to celebrate a religious fair on the occasion of Makar (Maghe) Sakaranti (first day of Nepali month) every year. The fair lasts for 3 weeks.
Rautaha Pokhari This pond is situated at Rautaha VDC in Udayapur district at about 2000 ft. above the sea level. Despite being surrounded by evergreen tall forest, not even a single leaf is found dropped into the pond. Birds are seen to take away the leaves fallen on the surface leaving the pond always clean. As started earlier, many Hindus follow some sorts of animism and for this reason the pond is regarded with religious fervor. However, the unique beauty of nature is worth-viewing.
Name of district Udayapur Headquarters Gaighat Area 2272 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Sunsari West: Sindhuli and Dhanusha North: Okhaldhunga, Khotang and Bhojpur South: Siraha and Saptari Major rivers Trijuga, Tawa, Baijunath, Bahandura, Risku, Kakura. Location longitude: 860 9” – 870 10” latitude: 260 39” – 270 11” Climate Tropical and Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 38.00 C Minimum: 16.00 C Rainfall 1668.6 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Magar, Maithali, Rai, Tamang, Newari, Danuwar, Sherpa, Sunuwar, Gurung, Limbu, Tharu, Satar Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Gaighat, Udayapur Gad, Chaudadigad, Katai Beltar, Tribeni, Rautaha and Murkuchi Lakes and Ponds Rautahako, Suke Pokhari Waterfalls Manedanda, Khuwake, Chhatang, Batase, Sidhya Accommodation facilities Local lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health post, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Siraha On the either sides of east-west highway locates Lahan, the only municipal town in Siraha district. Mostly inhabited by Tharus, Yadvas, Muslims and Madwaris, the place is a market establishment where people from mountain and Terai purchase their basic needs.
The interiors of the Siraha district are densely populated compared to other districts. Some indigenous backward communities live here. The Tharu, Pasawan and Dhusadha are some of them, glorified with their ancient cultures. Big sized man-made ponds, expanding over thousands of square meters and 4-5 m deep, clustered all around, is the example of their interesting tradition.
Manikdaha Man-made ancient pond called Manik Daha (pond) is believed to be dug by a king named Manik in ancient time. The place is situated north of Lahan at about 4-hour walking distance. The pond is about 1 km in length, 100 meters in width and has the natural shape of a river. There are no records of pond drying up. The vicinity of the pond is clustered with small temple enshrined with the earthen images of various god and goddess.
Siraha Bazaar Situated 22 km south of Chaharwa, a bus stop on east-west highway, Siraha bazaar is at a distance of 18 km west of Lahan. It is the district headquarters, mostly inhabited by Yadavs, Jhas, and Rajput with rich traditions and cultures. The town is stretched from north to south clustered with small business establishment serving the local needs. Buses to Siraha are found at Lahan.
Name of district Siraha Headquarters Siraha Bazaar Area 1013 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Saptari West: Dhanusha North: Udayapur South: Bihar Major rivers Kamala, Mainabari, Gagana, Kutti, Balan and Kalyan Location Longitude: 860 6” – 860 27” Latitude: 260 33” – 260 55” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 36.00 C Minimum: 17.00 C Rainfall 1442 ml Predominant language, culture Maithili, Nepali, Tamang, Magar, Newari, Danuwar, Rai, Gurung, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Sherpa, Limbu, Abadhi, Sunuwar Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Siraha Bazzar, Lahan, Gol Bazaar Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post and Clinics
Saptari Rajbiraj, a municipal town is the headquarter of Saptari district. It lies at 25 km west of the Koshi Barrage along the east west highway. The way to Rajbiraj forks at Vardaha, a bus stop nearby Koshi Barrage.
The mix habitation of the Terai communities like Yadavs, Rajputs, Tharus, Kayasthas, Telis and Muslims and mountainous communities like Brahmans and Chhetris make unique socio-cultural structure of the place. In addition, presence of famous pilgrimage sites such as Sakhada Bhagawati and Chhinna Mastadevi temple in town make Rajbiraj worth to visit. Especially during Dashain, Tihar and Chhat festivals, Koshi Barrage and its surrounding areas look like Paradise. Boating on wooden planks in the ice cool water of great Saptaskoshi river enjoying river scenes is yet another factor that adds to the attraction of Rajbiraj.
Rajbiraj is accessible by air service; two-flights a week are now in operation from Kathmandu. The place is also connected by bus service, available at Vardaha or at Rupani.
Fattepur Fattepur is a small town in Saptari district situated about 15 km north from Kanchanpur, a well-known bus stop in east-west highway. Located by the side of Trijuga river, the town is surrounded by a tropical forest on the north. The place best serves as the base for trekkers willing to visit northern districts such as Udayapur, Khotang and Bhojpur. The place offers same sceneries of flat land and fishery is other things worth seeing.
Name of district Saptari Headquarters Rajbiraj Area 1494 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Sunsari West: Siraha North: Udayapur South: Bihar Major rivers Koshi, Trijuga, Balas and Khenda Location longitude: 860 28” – 870 7” latitude: 260 25” –260 47” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 29.80 C Minimum: 14.30 C Rainfall 1717 ml Predominant language, culture Maithili, Nepali, Newari, Abadhi, Rai, Gurung, Tamang, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Sherpa, Sunuwar, Rajbanshi, Tharu Communication Telephone, Trunk Call, and Wireless Tourist attraction centers Rajbiraj, Hanumannagar, Sakhada, Til-thi, Chandranagar, Bhogwati, Bairba, Raj-banauli and Koshibarrage Lakes and Ponds Ghoda Daha, Kalyan, Kamala, Mahuli, Manik Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connection, airways Medical facilities Hopital. Health post, Clinics
Dolkha Dolakha is mountainous district in Janakpur zone in the central development region. Its total land area is 2191sq km and its borders touch Solukhumbu and Ramachhap the east, Ramachhap and Sindhupalchock in the south, Sindhupalchock in the west and with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of People’s Republic of China in the north. Sitali, the lowest part of the district is 723 meter above sea level whereas Mt. Gaurishankar, the highest part of the district is 7,134 meter above sea level. Dolakha is the land of all seasons. There is a myriad place to go, people to meet and sites to see. Dolakha is an attractive tourist destination and the people of Dolakha are eager to welcome tourist in the district.
Charikot Some 133 km from Kathmandu, 4 hours by Car and half day by bus, Charikot provides a spectacular mountain views of Himalayan ranges, the prominent peak being Gaurishankar (7,134). It is a district headquarters, geographically looking like the beautiful Indian city, Darjeeling, situated at an altitude of 1,970 meter. We can see Rolwaling range, Tamakoshi River, green hills and settlements in one glance from this beautiful small green city.
Jiri Valley Jiri valley lies at the distance of 55 km east from Charikot and 188 km northeast from Kathmandu. Swiss tourists compare this valley with beautiful city of Jurich, Switzerland. The valley has its own importance being the gateway to Mt. Everest. It is from Jiri that you start your trek to Lhotse, Cherdung, Thodung. Walking around Jiri valley or up to the Cherdung Cheese Factory (1hour walking distance) will be a welcome exercise for your legs before starting one the long way back from Jiri. Village nearby is the home of Jirel, not found in other districts of Nepal. This fact could be an interesting subject for sociological research and for those having special interest on it.
Kalinchowck In the northern part of Charikot, at a distance of 18 km, there lies Kalinchowck temple at an altitude of 3,842 meters. Goddess Kalinchowck is highly noted as a wish fulfilling goddess throughout the country. Having remarkable significance, on the occasion of Janaipurnima, Dasai, Chaite Dasai, the temple sees a huge procession taking place, with the goddess at the center. Kalinchowck is 6-hour walk uphill from Charikot. It is a famous pilgrimage site for Hindus. The fascinating Kalinchowck hill also offers a gorgeous view of the Himalayan ranges, enchanting hundred green hills, beautiful settlements etc.
Beding Beding village is located in Ward No. 1 of Gaurishankar VDC. The Sherpas inhabit the village and the prime source of their livelihood in climbing mountains. Sherpas are world famous mountaineers, capable of climbing mountains without formal education and training.
Sailung Sailung, one of the most magnificent tourist attractions, is situated 18 km southeast from Charikot. It is an important place for religious and natural tourist where we can entertain by visiting Sailungeshor Mahadev and hundreds of pleasing green hills. It is situated in an elevation of 3,500 meters, and is connected by motorable road.
Tashi Monastry In the northern part of Dolakha, there is a famous Tashi Monastery at the base of Himalayan range in Bigu VDC. The Monastery is renowned as an institute for Buddhist nuns (also known as Aani). The monastery welcomes the visitors to see its precious scriptures and painting inside. It takes two days on foot, around 45 km from district headquarters, 2-hour walking distance from Bigu monastery. We can make side trip to slate mine at Aalumpu VDC as well.
Tshorolpa Glacier Lake The world famous Glacier Lake “Tsho Rolpa” is situated in the village of Rolwaling of Gaurishankar VDC. Situated at an altitude of 4,581 meter, this pro-glacial lake is the biggest glacier lake of the country. Rolwaling is the destination for adventure seekers.
Bheemeshwor Temple Bheemeshor temple is one of the important religious places of Nepal situated within the Dolakha town, 4 km east of Charikot. Pilgrims from India and different parts of Nepal come to visit the temple with faith of fulfilling wish. Out of four epithets of God Shiva, it is known that one is Pashupatinath and other is Bheemeshwor. The temple is supposed to be established in Kirat era. Bheemeshower is also known as “One Icon, Three Incarnation.” The temple of Lord Bheemsen is roofless. It is regarded as the deity of boundless power. Various processions take place on the occasions of Bheme Ekadeshi, Dasai, Chaite Dasai and Khadga Jattra.
Bhimsen is god of powers and also god of traders. But traders and businessmen rarely worship Dolakha Bhimsen. A minibus service is available in reverse gear from Katmandu to Dolakha Bhimsen.
Helambu Situated 72 kilometers northeast of Kathmandu, Helambu is called the ‘trekker’s paradise’. The place is famous for its scenic beauty. In addition Sherpa villages of the locality are very interesting. Starting point of Helambu Trek is usually from Sundarijal. One can also reach Helambu via Panchkal.
Dolakha, a historical town Dolakha town has its own importance for its economic, social and religion field. Dolakha encompasses the history of both the Kirant and Lichhchavi period. Trade route to Bhote of Tibet from Dolakha was linked from Tamakoshi till the end of the Malla period. There are three entry points to Tibet named Kuti through Bigu, Bhote through Lachema and Tibet through Lamabagar. Newar are the tribes of religion, culture, language and other social systems. God Bhimsen, the famous temple in Nepal, is situated in the town which was established in Kirat period, it is estimated. It is believed that if any distinct episode in country is going to happen in the country, it begins to sweat from the statue of God Bhimeshwor.
It is also stated in Puran that the Pandav remained under ground for one year in this place. Whlile remaining hidden, it is said, they used a different language for communication. This language is recognized as Dolakha language at present.
Dolakha is a little away- one-hour walk from Charikot. It offers an opportunity to see a typically traditional Newari village. It is an important place of pilgrimage too. The famous roofless temple of Dolakha Bhimsen (also known as Bhimeshwor Mahadev) is situated in the eastern upper part of the town.
Name of district Dolakha Headquarters Charikot Area 2053 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Ramechhap and Solukhumbu West: Sindhupalchok North: Tibet South: Ramechhap Major rivers Tamor, Charanawati, Khare, Khimtee, Miltee, Rolwaling, Singtee Location Longitude: 850 50” – 860 32 Latitude: 270 28 – 280 0” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical, Cool temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 190 C Minimum: 8 0 C Rainfall 2043.05 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Sherpa, Newari,, Sunuwar, Magar, Gurung, Abadhi, Maithili, Tharu, Limbu, Rai, Rajbanshi, Bhojpuri Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Charikot, Bhimeswor, Dolakha Bazaar, Jiri, Kalinchok Mai, Lama Bazaar Himalayan Peaks Melungse, Gauri Sankar, Chobha- Bhamare Lakes and Ponds Kalimchokmai Kunda, Panch Pokhari Waterfalls Panch Pokhari Accommodation facilities Hotels, Lodges. Accessibility Road Connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Ramechhap (1432 m), the headquarters of Ramechhap district, is located on the east–west aligned phyllite ridge. The place had an army garrison, health center, high school and even a windmill that was damaged by gale force wing. Looking at the heavily deforested slope, it was not surprising that Ramechhap faces acute water shortage. The nights are cold with strong winds although the local administration makes some arrangements. ‘Chhap’ is popular nick-name like Kiranti Chhap, Naya Chhap, Thin Chhap.
Name of district Ramechhap Headquarters Ramechhap Area 1544 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Okhaldhunga and Solukhumbu West: Kavrepalanchok and Dolakha North: Dolakha and Kavrepalanchok South: Sindhuli Major rivers Kimti, Likhu, Milti, Sunkoshi, Tamakoshi, KhiniBhathounli, Chaurikhola Location longitude: 850 50”- 860 35” latitude: 270 28”- 270 50” Climate Cool temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 21. 30 C. Minimum: 11. 90 C. Rainfall 2025 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Newari, Tamang, Magar, Sunuwar, Sherpa, Gurung, Rai, Maithili, Abadhi, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Tharu Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Ramechhap, Kebaleswar. Bajgaun, Sanghutar and Those Accommodation facilities Lodge, Hotel, Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Health Center, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, clinic
Sindhuli Sindhuli district, in Janakpur zone, with Sindhulimadhi as district headquarters, covers an area of 2,491 sq km with the population of 279,821 (2001). This small valley les between Mahabharata and Chure ranges. The place is being cleared of forest two years ago. There were now numerous timber sheds with shop and office building, some still under construction. The headquarter Sindhulmadi had grown fast at the cost of the older Sindhuligadhi town. The settlers are manly Brahmins, Chhetris, Tamangs, and Magars from nearby hills and the shops belonged to Dhulikhel Newars
Sindhuligadhi Sindhhuligadhi (1461m) lies on the Mahabharata ridge. The old Darbar of the district administrator has been converted in to a police post after the headquarters of Sindhuli district was shifted from here to Sindhulimadi lower town. The fort was surrounded by a stone wall with an elaborate ground plan. An uphill of stone steps lead to the only entrance on the northern side of the Darbar. Inside the enclosure of the outer zig-zag wall lies a large circular court with entrances at the four cardinal points. On the south gallery between the inner and outer courts, wall is hexagonal, well made up of bricks and mortar which is about 10 meters deep. The eastern gallery had a large canon captured from the first British expeditionary force in 1767. Sinndhuligadi was the Gorkhali outpost that shattered the 2,400 strong British force led by Captain Kinlock.
Name of district Sindhuli Headquarter Sindhulimadi Area 2419 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Okhaldhunga and Udayapur West: Makawanpur and Lalitpur North: Kavrepalanchok and Ramechhap South: Dhanusha, Mahottari and sarlahI Major rivers Bagmati, Kamala, Arun, thakur Gwang khola, Bitijor, Baksu khola, Marin khola and Rosi khola Location Longitude: 850 24" –860 22" Latitude: 260 55" –270 21" Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical, Temperate Temperature Maximum: 28.30 C. Minimum: 5.30 C Rainfall 1419.5 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Magar, Danuwar, Newari, Sunuwar, Rai, Sherpa, Gurung, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Abadhi, Tharu, Limbu. Communication Post office , Wireless Telephone Tourist attraction centers Sindhulimadi, Hariharpurgadi , Sindhulimadi,Dumja and Kamalamaisthan Accommodation facilities Hotel Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Sarlahi Sarlahi is one of richest districts in terms of crop production but the least developed district in the Janakpur zone. Before the construction of east west Highway, Sarlahi was a remote district. Deforestation went rampant and new settlements are increasing day by day. The district has an area of 1,052 sq km. Dense forests of the district accomondate many rare wild animals. Mostly Yadavs live, though Tharus and Danuwars are indigenous and ethnic settlers. Muslims live in southern belt. Agriculture is the main source of economy. Tribhuvannagar, Belbas, Harpur, Rajawa Bazaar, Sundarpur Bazaar, Murtiya, Harion, Simara and Nawalpur major places to visit.
Name of district Sarlahi Headquarter Malangawa Area 1052 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Mahottari West: Rautahaat North: Sindhuli South: Bihar Major rivers Bagmati, Thim, Lokhanti and Banke Location longitude: 850 24’ –850 48” latitude: 260 37” –270 10” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical, Mild temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.30 C, Minimum: 9.30 C Rainfall NA Predominant language, culture Maithali, Nepali, Tamang, Magar, Newari, Tharu, Bhojpuri, Sunuwar, Limbu, Rai, Gurung, Abadhi, Sherpa, Danuwar, Santhali, Rajbanshi Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless, Trunk call Tourist attraction centers Malangawa, Haripur, Belbas, Sandarpur Bazzar, Mutiya, Rajwabazzar, Nawalpur, Tribhuwanagar Lakes and Ponds Ghudda, Madimain Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Centers, Clinics
Jaleswor Mahottari district with Jaleswor as its headquarters covers an area of 1,002 sq km and has a population of 553,481 (2001).
Jaleshwor is a neighboring town of historical city, Janakpur. Jaleshwor means the ‘God of Water’. One can find a famous temple of Lord Shiva in water in Jaleshwor. It lies a few kilometers away from the Nepal-India border. The altitude of the district ranges from 61m to 807.7m. In ancient period, Mahottari was part of the Mithila principalty. Legends say soil from Matihani was used in the marriage ceremony of Ram and Sita. Tasmaiya hymn is popular among the resident that remembers saint Tasmaiya Baba.
A local Brahman called Mahodari constructed a big pond in his area. Pond was named after his name and later Mahodari was misspelled to Mahottari. Before the unification of Nepal, the district was under Makawanpur state. Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the district in 1762 AD. Mahottari Pokhari, Barun Sar, Bhargais Sar are main ponds in the district. Jaleswor, Matihani, Ratabara, Gaushala, Sona Maisthan, Harapukha Gaun are main area to visit in Mahottari.
Name of district Mahottari Headquarter Jaleswar Area 1052 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Dhanusha West: Sarlahi North: Sindhuli South: Bihar Major rivers Banke, Bindhi, Goge, Jangha, Megha, Rato Location longitude: 850 40 –850 58" latitude: 260 32"- 270 18" Climate Tropical, sub-tropical, Mild temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.30 C Maximum: 19.30 C Rainfall 1479.8 ml Predominant language, culture Maithali, Nepali, Magar, Tamang, Abadhi, Newari, Sherpa, Tharu, Gurung, Rai,Bhojpuri, Danuwar, Limdu, Sunuwar Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Jaleswor, Gaushala, Harpukhe Gaun, Matihani Ratwara, Sana Maisthan Lakes and Ponds Barunsar, Bhargawasar, Mahodari Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinics
Janakpur Janakpur (73m) is a typical Tarai town with a number of rice mills and business houses. Janakpur in the heartland of ancient Mithila, reputed to have been once a large well planned city and centre of learning. It is credited to be the capital city of King Janak, the father of Sita. The present town is enclosed by an eight kilometers long brick- paved ring road within which are 24 large tanks and 21 ponds, numerous Hindu shrines dedicated to Rama, Sita, Laxman and Hanuman. Animal slaughter is not allowed within the periphery of the ring road. Janaki temple, dedicated to Sita, is the heart-throb of the town, built by Tikamgarh (Bundelkhand) in 1910. The temple with marble that forms the focus of Hindu devotees, however, is incongruously a specimen of 17th century Mughal architecture (p1. XIVb). Janakpur town has market days on Sundays and Tuesdays. Large number of Hindus from Nepal, India and other countries visit the place during various religious fairs. The only railway station of Nepal is at eastern end of the town and connects Janakpur with Jaynagar in Bihar. The Indian border is about eight kilometers south across Jaleswar where there is a Shiva Shrine.
Janaki Temple This temple in Janakpur is one of the most famous temples in the Tarai belt. Janaki is another name of Sita, the consort of Rama (the epic hero of Ramayana). Rama is one of the incarnations of Lord Vishnu. King Janak, who was renowned for his wisdom, was Sita’s father. His palace was located here and it is after him that this place came to be known as Janakpur. There are number of places, ponds and temples in Janakpur that reflects the events taken place during the Ramayana age.
Janaki Temple is an artistic marble temple constructed in colonial architecture. The images worked out on marble are worth seeing. This temple was built by the Queen Vrisha Bhanu Kumari of Tikamagadha in 1911 A.D. The local people prefer calling it ‘Naulakha’ for it is said that rupees nine lakh (Rs. 0.9 million) was spent for its construction. It is also known as ‘Sisa Mahal’. Devotees from India and Nepal congregate here in thousands on the occasions such as Rama Navami, Vivaha Panchami and so on. The other places of attraction in the periphery of Janaki temple are Rama Temple and Ganga Sagar.
Dhanushadham Dhanushadham is a historical and religious site dating back to the time of the great Hindu epic Ramayana. It clearly reflects the long history of Nepali art and architecture.
Parashuramkunda Previously known as Janak Sarobar, the holy pond of Parashuramkunda holds a historical as well as cultural significance. It is believed to be the pond where Maharishi Parashuram bathed to quell his anger after his confrontation with Rama over the breaking of the sacred bow of Shiva. The pond is picturesque, with lotus flowers floating on it and lush trees on the southern banks. The pond of Mithileshwar Nikas VDC is 4 km west of Dhanushadham.
Janakpur is well linked with Kathmandu by both air and land routes. Since it is well connected to the national and regional network by bus services, journey to and from Janakpur is not difficult. Accommodation facilities of moderate level are readily available and so are the hotels and restaurants for food.
Name of district Dhanusha Headquarters Janakpurdham Area 1219 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Siraha and Udayapur West: Mahottari North: Sindhuli South: Bihar Major rivers Bighee, Charnath, Gap Ghagar, Hardinath, Kamala, Rato, Bidhee, Sunjoree, Selar, Ghagar, Kol, Dugdhawati Location Longitude: 850 52"- 860 20, Latitude: 260 35"– 270 05" Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.30 C Minimum: 19.30 C Rainfall 1479.8 ml Predominant language, culture Maithali, Nepali, Magar, Tamang, Newari, Bhojpuri, Danuwar, Rai, Limbu, Sherpa, Gurung, Sunuwar, Abadhi, Tharu, Santhali, Rajbanshi Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless, Cell Phones Tourist attraction centers Janakpurdham, Janaki Mandir, Ram Mandir Dhanusha, Chisapani, Mahendranagar. Lakes and Ponds Gangasagar, Dhanussagar, Dugthawatee, Aaragaja Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouses Accessibility Road connections, Railway, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center
Chitwan Chitwan as one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the ‘Tarai’ region, which formerly extended over the foothills of Nepal. The Chitwan National Park has been enlisted in Natural World Heritage Site. It is rich in flora and fauna. One of the last populations of single-horned Asiatic rhinoceros live in the park, which is also one of the last refuge for the Bengal tiger.
Chitwan National Park The highlight for most visitors to the Tarai is a visit to Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve, recreated out of the once-fertile rice and wheat fields that covered the Rapti Valley after the fall of Rana dynasty in the 1950s. Park, covering 932 square kilometers (360 square miles) of area, was the first of Nepal’s extensive network of wildlife sanctuaries.
The valley is bed of the Narayani River. Rapti River and other streams and feeders join Narayani to become the second-largest tributary of the sacred Ganga that flows approximately 200 kilometers (125 miles) to the south.
Before the park’s creation in 1973, Nepal’s population explosion had pushed migrants down from the hills, forcing the indigenous Tharu tribes into this area, which was formerly reserved as royal hunting grounds. Using slash and-burn techniques, they opened up the forests and planted rice and grain. Concerned with the destruction of its traditional hunting grounds, Nepal’s royal family planned new strategies for the protection of its wildlife.
Getting there The park is linked to major centers in Nepal and India by air and road, with scheduled domestic flights to nearby Bharatpur.
Bharatpur The twin towns of Bharatpur and Narayanghat are the nearest urban centers in Chitwan. Bharatpur’s role in the lowland infrastructure is as an airfield for what the domestic air carrier rashly promises daily flights to Kathmandu.
Narayangarh Narayanghat, lying on the banks of one of Nepal’s three largest rivers, the Narayani, and known as the gateway to Chitwan, is in fact the major junction on the Mahendra Highway, with a spur climbing up through the hills along the east bank of the Narayani to Mungling. Mungling is the main junction between Kathmandu and Pokhara along the Prithvi Highway.
It is also the main administrative and commercial centre in Tarai and indeed the ethnic capital of the indigenous people of this region, the Tharus.
Bustling Narayanghat with sizeable industries and flourishing markets is also good for pilgrimage. Each year, in January, tens of thousands of people flock to the nearby village of Deoghat when a major fair is held, and immerse themselves at the confluence of the Kali Gandaki with the waters of the Trisuli- Marsyangdi.
Travellers continue their westward journey from Narayanghat over the modern bridge that spans the river, veering southwest along the Narayani’s flood plains and over the shallow crest of a spur of the Siwalik Hills to join the Siddhartha Highway, a direct India-Pokhara link at Butwal, on the banks of the River Tinau. This town, with 25,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, is famous for fruit.
Daman Situated 180 km southwest of Kathmandu at an altitude of 2,400 meters above the sea- level, Daman commands a breathtaking view of most of the major Himalayan ranges of Nepal. To make the process easier a tower equipped with long range telescopes has been built.
The place is easily accessible; it can be reached within four or five hours from Kathmandu by bus. Furthermore, round trip from Kathmandu to Pokhara, Tansen, Lumbini, Narayangath or Chitwan and Daman is a thrilling experience.
Name of district Chitawan Headquarter Bharatpur Area 2510 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Dhading, Gorkha, Makawanpur and Parsa West: Nawalprasi, Tanahun North: Dhading, Gorkha,Tanahun and Nawalparasi South: Parsa and Bihar Major rivers Loathar, Manahari, Narayani, Rapti and Khageri Location longitude: 830 53”- 850 27” latitude: 270 27”- 460 0” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.30 C. Minimum: 16.60 C. Rainfall 1512.3 ml. Predominant language, Culture Nepali, Tharu, Tamang, Gurung, Newari, Magar, Rai, Sunwar, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Maithili, Rajbanshi. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Bharatpur, Dewghat, Meghauli, Narayanghat, Rampur, Sauraha. Lakes and Ponds Bhimle Tal, Devi Tal, Khageri Tal, Munda Tal, Mujura Tal, Nanda BhaujuTal, Tamar Tal, Tami Tal. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, and Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic Center, Medical Collage
Parsa Eighty kilometres (50 miles) west of Janakpur, the Mahendra Highway links up with the Tribhuvan Rajpath. To the south is the border town of Birgunj, to the north, through Amiekhganj and across the Mahabharata hills, is Kathmandu Valley. Enroute to Kathmandu lies Daman.
Birganj, in Parsa district has seen better days. In the 1960s and 1970s, western hippies and mystics queued for clearance into Nepal on the Indian side at Raxaul, and spending nights in one of Birgunj’s many cheap lodging houses before taking the high road to Kathmandu.
It is still a bustling industrial area with timber yards, a sugar mill, match factory and a raucous bus depot, where itinerants jostle each other in their eagerness to catch the next, often overcrowded, coach to Kathmandu. It is also a jump-off point for visitors to Royal Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve Size: 1,200 sq. km. (470 sq. miles) Geographical location: Bounded by the Rapti River in the north, the Rewa River and the Churia or Siwalik Range in the south and the Narayani River in the west.
Vegetation: Small forests of Khani, Sisso and simal—all valuable indigenous woods.
Fauan: Elephants are the best form of transport, Samta deer, tiger and leopard. Giant butterflies flit from leaf to leaf. On the plains the great Asiatic one- horn rhinos, chital and deer are sighted, peacocks and jungle fowl are found while crocodiles are found in the Rapti River.
Name of district Parsa Headquarter Birganj Area 1203 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Bara West: Chitawan North: Makawanpur South: Bihar Major rivers Banjari Location longitude: 840 8”- 840 27” latitude: 270 0”- 270 26” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical. Temperature Maximum: 31.30 C. Minimum: 8. 20 C. Rainfall 1760.6 ml. Predominant language, culture Bhojpuri, Nepali, Newari, Maithali, Tamang, Tharu, Gurung, Abadhi, Magar, Rai, Rajbanshi, Limbu, Sherpa. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Cell Phone Tourist attraction centers Bindhyabasini, Birganj. Lakes and Ponds Banjari Tal Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse. Accessibility Road connection, Railways. Medical facilities Hospital, Heath Post, Clinics, Ayurvedic Center.
Bara The district, with Kalaiya as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,190 sq km and has a population of 559,135 (2001). Altitude varies from 152 m to 915 m.
Bara district since Mithila kingdom of prehistoric days, is economically, socially, historically and naturally, one of the richest in culture.
It is said that the district is preserved by Baragadhi since Mithila kingdom to date, for which it is called Bara now. Kankalini temple of Simrongarh, Jhorahar Pond of Karchorba, Goddes of Bariyapur, Baragadhi, Sahajnath of Kantghant, Churiyamai of Chure are major touristic places to visit.
Name of district Bara Headquarter Kalaiya Bazaar Area 1263 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Rautahat West: Parsa North: Makawanpur South: Bihar Major rivers Anruwa, Bageri, Lal Bakaiya, Shati, Mohan and Sirsiya Location longitude: 840 51”-850 16” latitude: 260 51”- 270 2” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 31.30 C. Minimum: 18.00 C. Rainfall 1760.6 ml. Predominant language, culture Thari, Abadhi, Nepali, Bhojpuri, Magar, Newari, Gurung , Maithili, Tamang, Danuwar, Rai, Sherpa, satar, Santhali, Limbu. Communication Post office, Telephone, Cell Phone. Tourist attraction centers Amalekhganj, Bariyadpur, Kalaiya, Raniwas, Simara and Simraungadh. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic Centers
Rautahat Rautahat (122 m) is one of the biggest district in Narayani Zone and has the highest number of VDCs. Rautahat is derived from the “Raut” tribes of Nepal. Rauts are mainly cow farmers (Gwala) found in the district. Rautahat is called grain store of the country. Sugarcane is the major cash crop. Flood in Bagmati and Bakaiya rivers is the main constraints of development. Average length and breadth of the district are 51 km and 25.5 km respectively. In ancient period, the area was under the Lichhavi regime (Tirahunt). Later on in 1097 A.D. Namyadev of Karnatak dynasty in Simroungarh, conquered the area. Sumanpur, where Nepali soldiers fought the army of East India Company in 1814 AD also lies in this district.
Name of district Rautahat Headquarter Gaur Area 1259 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Sarlahi West: Bara North: Makawanpur South: Bihar Major rivers Bagmati, Choni Khola, Jhani, Lal Bakaiya, Manusmara Location Longitude: 850 14”-850 30” Latitude: 260 44”-270 14” Climate Tropical Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 310 C Minimum: 170 C Rainfall 1605.9 ml Predominant language, culture Bhojpuri, Nepali, Maithili, Tamang, Tharu, Sherpa, Rai, Newari, Gurung, Magar, Limnu, Rajbanshi, Avadhi Communication Post office, Telephone, Cell Phone Tourist attraction centers Chandranigahapur, Gaur, Katahariya and Samanpur Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Langtang, Gosaikund, Rasuwa The district gives the experiences untouched Tamang/Tibetan culture amidst breathtaking Himalayan scenery. One of the nearest trekking destinations from Kathmandu, it has an unparalleled combination of natural beauty and cultural riches of Langtang Rasuwa.
Previously, a restricted area near the Tibetan border, the unexplored regions of the Langtang National Park has recently been developed into the Tamang Heritage Trail. The people in these places are mostly of Tamang and Tibetan origin, whose cultural history goes back to hundreds of years. The craftsmanship, dress, traditionally built stone houses and the beautifully carved wooden porches reflect the solitude and the serenity of the Himalayan scenery. Langtang has over 70 glaciers – the Langtang and Ganesh Himal mountain ranges and high altitude lakes like Gosaikunda, Parvatikunda, Bhairavkunda, Dudhkunda. One can also enjoy the rich Tamang art and culture at Gutlang and Goljung, ancient Buddhist monasteries such as Kyangin and Singgompa, Tatopani and the historic fort of Rasuwagadhi in the Sino-Nepal border.
Rasuwa’s Hidden Treasure The Langtang valley is the most popular trek destination. Equally rich in culture and biodiversity are the Goljung – Gutlang – Chilime – Thuman and Briddim areas. Goljung – Gutlang - Chilime –Thuman - Briddim area (see map). A recently identified Tamang and Tibetan art and cultural heritage trek route is one of the most accessible of the trekking regions in Nepal.
Homestay Briddim is a small yet beautiful village where locals offer a unique accommodation opportunity. You can stay in their homes as guests and discover the culture of this area.
Hot Springs At Tatopani, which literally means ‘hot water’, you can cleanse yourself spiritually in natural hot springs with bathing areas in the lap of the mountains. Locals believe that the waters have a healing quality that eases away your aches and pains.
Gosaikunda Gosaikunda is famous for its scenic beauty and religious value. Gosaikunda, the holy cave is situated at an altitude of 4,360m above the sea-level. There are a number of other beautiful lakes nearby – Saraswoti Kunda, Bhairav Kunda, Ganesh Kunda. The approach to Gosaikunda is through Dunche which is 132 kilometers northwest of Kathmandu.
The trek starts from Dhunche and on to Sing Gompa, Gosainkunda and the Helambu Sherpa villages. Melamche, Tarkegyang and Shermathang are the most beautiful villages along the trek. There are magnificent mountain views of Ganesh Himal, Langtang and other Himalayan peaks. Gosainkunda itself is a holy lake, where people from far and near, including the shamans, make a pilgrimage during the full moon day of August.
Langtang National Park Langtang is one of the unspoiled national parks of Nepal. Situated north of Kathmandu, it is the most easily accessible highland sanctuary from the capital. Langtang covers 1,710 sq km of land forming the upper catchment area of two of Nepal’s larges river system – the Trishuli and Koshi. There is a great altitudinal variation, starting at 1,500m and ascending to the top of Mt. Langtang Lirung at 7,246m. As a result, the park has immense ecological diversity. Some of the most attractive area of the park includes the Langtang Valley, the holy lakes at Gosainkunda and the forested hillsides above the village of Helambu.
The deep gorges of Bhote Koshi and Langtang Khola are thickly forested with rhododendron, oak, maple and alder. The red panda, a rare and threatened symbol of the healthy Himalayan ecosystem, inhabits the stretch of forest around Ghore Tabla in the lower Langtang Valley and below Gosainkunda. Other animals common to these forests are wild boar, Himalayan black bear, ghoral, grey langur monkey and leopard. The rare Himalayan honey guide are sighted here. The park is also the home for impeyan, blood, Tragopan and Kalij pheasants among other birds. Larch, a rare deciduous conifer, is also found in the forest of lower Langtang Valley.
It is the four-day trek to reach upper side of Langtang. However, it is advisable to spend a few days around the forest at Ghore Tabela to watch the red panda. This area was the venue for the scientific field study of this rare animal. Once above Langtang village and the monastery at Kyangjin, visitors can explore the high valley of Langshisa Yala peak and Tsergo Ri. People of Tibetan descent inhabit these and other villages of upper Langtang whereas the villagers of Dhunche, Bharkhu, Syarbu further down are home of Tamangs.
Name of district Rasuwa Headquarter Dhunche Area 1265 sq. km Political Boundary East: Sindhupalchok and Tibet West: Dhading and Tibet North: Dhading and Tibet South: Nuwakot and Sindhupalchok Major rivers Bhote Koshi, Chillime, Langtang, Melong, Trishuli,Ghothe and Kimtong Location longitude: 850 1”- 850 45” latitude: 270 2”- 270 23” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 22.60 C Minimum: 11.50 C Rainfall 994.3 ml Predominant language, culture Tamang, Nepali, Sherpa, Gurung, Newari Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Dhunche, Gosaikunda, Langtang Valley and Rasuwagadhi Himalayan Ganesh Himal,Gosainkunda, Langtang Himal Lakes and Ponds Bhairab Kunda, Dudh Kunda, Ganesh Kunda, Gosain Kunda, Jageswar Kunda, Kalo–Seto Kunda, Saraswati Kunda, Surya Kunda Accommodation facilities Hotel Lodge Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Health post
Access The high pass out of Langtang, Gang La (5,132m), should be trekked only with well prepared hikers and guides, food and camping equipment. The Gosainkunda can also be reached in a few days from Dhunche, making it possible to visit both areas in the same range. Alternatively, trekkers can hike to Gosainkunda from Sundarijal in Ktahmandu Valley via Helambu. The richly forested route that climbs steep from here to Thare Pati and Ghopte Cave is alive with birds and flowering rhododendron and the orchids in the spring. Tourists can visit the Langtang National Park anytime from March to November but it is best to avoid the monsoon season because of rains and overflowing rivers. The nature enthusiast might find the rainy season ideal because of the profusion of plant life.
Dhading Major two highways (Tribhuwan and Prithvi ) join in Naubise of Dhading. King Ram Shah had established an Army Teacher Camp in Dhading Gadhi. In Chepang language “Dha” is God and “Ding” is fire flame. Thus the ethnic tribe Chepang are the indigenous people of the district. Dhading is surrounded by Trishuli and Budhigandaki (Gandak River System) river. Central part of the district is 1,440m above sea level.
Name of district Dhading Headquarter Dhading Besi Area 2959 sq. km Political Boundary East: Kathmandu, Nuwakot, Rasuwa and Tibet West: Chitawan, Gorkha, and Tibet North: Nuwakot and Tibet South: Chitawan and Makawanpur Major rivers: Location longitude: 840 0”- 850 1” latitude: 270 40”- 280 14” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 26.70 C Minimum: 16.60 C Rainfall 2121.2 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Gurung, Newari, Magar, Sherpa, Maithili, Abadhi, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Rai, Satar. Communication Post office, Telephone Wireless Tourist attraction centers Dhading Besi, Abuthume Lake, Benighat, Gajuri Bazzar, Katunje,Bazzar, and Sunauli Bazzar Himalayan Peak Ganesh, Thaple, Shreengi Lakes and Ponds Bridaing Kund, Ganesh Kund, Ganga Kund, Kalo Seto Daha Waterfalls Ganga Jamuna Accommodation facilities Hotel Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Makawanpur Makanpur was a single historical state earlier and was a bypass to tarai from Kathmandu valley. Before 1961 Makawanpur was declared as the separate district, Mahottari, Dhanusha and Sarlahi were under same administrative unit. Rapti, Karra, Kulekhani, Bakaiya, Palung, Tistung are major rivers which help for high yield in cultivation. Valley of Karrakhola is called Makawanpur area and Valley of Tistung and Palung is called Palung Valley. The district covers an area of 2,236 sq. km. Tistung, Palung, Bhainse, Hetauda, Chitlang, Markhu, Kulekhani and Bhimphedi are major settlements. Himalayan ranges can be seen from Daman Tower.
Name of district Makawanpur Headquarters Bhimphedi Area 2238 sq. km Political Boundary East: Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Sindhili West: Chitawan, Bara and Parsa North: Dhading, Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Sindhuli and Chitawan South: Rautahat, Bara, Parsa and Chitawan Major rivers Bagmati, Kulekhani, Rapti, Sanawari and Bhainse Location longitude: NA latitude: NA Climate Sub-tropical, temperate, cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.30 C Minimum: 16.60 C Rainfall 2288.9 ml Predominant language, culture Tamang, Nepali, Newari, Rai, Magar, Gurung, Danuwar, Sherpa, Maithili, Tharu, Bhojpuri, Abadhi, Limbu, Rajbanshi Communication Post Office, Telephone, Cell Phones Tourist attraction centers Bhimphedi, Hetauda, Tistung, Palung, Dawan and Makawanpur Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Centers, Ayurvedic Centers
Nuwakot Nuwakot district, a part of Bagmati zone, with Bidur as the headquarters, covers an area of 1,121 sq km. It has historically important places such as the Nuwakot Palace located in the village of Nuwakot, and Devighat. It is one of the most rich districts in culture, history and nature. Nuwakot is among nine Kots (Belkot, Dhuwakot, Dhaibungkot, Pyaskot, Bhairamkot, Malakot, Simalkot, Sallyanko and Kalikakot) located in northwest of Kathmandu. The name of the district is derived from the common name of all nine Kots (Navakot). Two holy rivers Trishuli and Tadi make the district cultivating. Culturally and historically rich district Nuwakot, was formerly the capital of Nepal for 25 years (1801-1825 B.S.). Rangamahal, Garad Ghar, Topkhana, Barudkhana are famous places to visit. Trishuli and Devighat hydropower stations can be observed in the place.
Name of district Nuwakot Headquarters Bidur Area 1193 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu West: Dhadin and Rasuwa North: Rasuwa South: Dhading and Kathmandu Major rivers Falankhu, Linkhu Sumari, Sanlankhu, Siridhure, Tadi and Trishuli Location longitude: 840 58”- 850 30” latitude: 270 48”- 280 06” Climate Sub-tropical, Mild, Temperate Temperature Maximum: 26.60 C Minimum: 16.30 C Rainfall 1431.0 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Newari, Sherpa, Gurung, Maithili, Magar, Abadhi, Limbu, Rai Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Trisuli Bazzar, Battar, Betrawati, Bidur, Devighat, Dupcheswar, Kakani, Nuwakot and Bhalche Lakes and Ponds Suryakunda Waterfalls Chhaharekhda, Ripko, Phungphung Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Sindhupalchok The Sherpa villages of Helambu north of Kathmandu valley presents an easy getaway. Because of its low elevation and the Sherpa villages, it an interesting 6- day trek loop. Starting with a short drive from Kathmandu to Sundarijal the trail to Helambu climbs up to the Shivapuri ridge from where there are sweeping views of the central Himalayas. Following a ridge-line, the trek heads north to Thare Pati before turning east to Melemchi Gaon and Tarke Gyang, the principle villages of this area. From here we can visit Shermathang before descending to the Melamchi river to end our trek with a drive from Melamchi Bazaar back to Kathmandu.
The trek route passes through the Helambu villages with altitudes of 1,370 m/4,500ft to 3,490m/11,500ft. Accommodation is comfortable in lodges run by local families. The trek starts with a drive from Kathmandu and includes all meals, services of experienced trek guide and porters to carry luggage. Clients carry a light day-pack only and walk at their own pace.
The Helambu Circuit trek is a wonderful shorter trek that is very close to Kathmandu which is ideal for those who have a short time to trek or wish not to go for long treks. This trek involves a loop around the Helambu region of the park and gives you great contact with local villages and the people that inhabit them. Rivers and mountainous valleys are another attraction of this trek. This trip involves moderate hiking and reaches a height of 3500m.
Tatopani Tatopani (1396m) with a hot spring was located on the west bank of the Bhote Koshi. The confluence of the river with Jung Khola is marked by a boundary pillar (No. 54) and the land north of the two streams is Chinese territory.
The hot springs and the surrounding areas are covered with loose earth and stones excavated from the road above. Tatopani lying on astride metamorphosed biotite zone marks a major thrust of the main Himalayan garnet- mica gneiss over the mica schistzone of the lesser Himalaya.
Name of district Sindhupalchok Headquarters Chautara Area 2528 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Dolakha and Kabhrepalanchok West: Nuwakot, Rasuwa, Kathmandu and Kabhrepalanchok North: Rasuwa and Tibet South: Nuwakot, Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchowk Major rivers Sunkoshi, Indrawati and Bhotekoshi Location longitude: 850 27”- 860 16” latitude: 270 36”- 280 13” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 22.50 C Minimum: 11.40 C Rainfall 3604.3 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Newari, Sherpa, Gurung, Magar, Maithili, Limbu, Rai, Sunuwar, Abadhi, Rajbanshi, Star, Danuwar Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Chautara, Barabise, Helambu, Tarkeghyang, Tatopani, Lamusang and Dugunagashi Himalayan Peaks Lang Pogang, Lang Pagang, Fewi Chaehlu, Worje Lakpa, Gyaljen Chuchura, Ladles Peak Lakes and Ponds Bhairawa Kunda, Surya Kunda Waterfalls Bhairawa Kunda Khola, Gunchhathal, Lidee, Balefee, Kanglang Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Kathmandu The Kathmandu Valley has an exotic setting. It is surrounded by a tier of green mountain wall above, which tower mighty snow-capped peaks. It consists of three main towns of great historic, artistic and cultural interests: Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. The Kathmandu Valley covers an area of 218 sq miles. It is situated 4,423 ft above sea level. The ancient Swasthani scriptures states story of Lord Shiva, supreme among Hindu gods, who came down to the Kathmandu Valley to escape boredom. He came as a tourist, if that is the appropriate word, but he was neither among the first nor the last of the gods to visit the Valley. Visitors have come to Nepal since time immemorial. And though the country is much different today than it was in ancient times, it has not diminished its charm. The increase in the number of visitors over the years is a living proof. Those who come to the Valley today will appreciate a lot more than Lord Shiva did in his tour. The architecture started here by the Lichhavi and Malla kings is one such examples. Much of the greenery that Lord Shiva saw has gone, but the forests surrounding Pashupati, where he stayed, are still intact. The seven World Heritage Sites in the Kathmandu Valley as designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are the highlights of the Valley.
Kasthamandap Kasthamandap, meaning wooden pavilion, is the biggest of all the Dharmsalas in Kathmandu. It is commonly believe that the massive wooden structure was built out of the timber from a single tree. The exact date of its construction and the name of the person who built it is not known. However, its name has been found mentioned in the oldest ever inscription of 1134 AD.
Kathmandu Darbar Square Kathmandu Darbar Square is in the heart of old city Kathmandu in Basantapur area. The complex was the residence to Nepal’s royal family before the construction of the Narayanhiti Palace. The founding of the Palace dates back to Lichhchavi times. With considerable renovations by Malla rulers and later the by Ranas, construction was accomplished progressively over many centuries. There are around 50 temples in the vicinity including the temple of titular deity, Taleju Bhawani. The Darbar is divided into two courtyards, the outer comprising Kasthamandap, Kumari Ghar, and Shiva-Parvati Temple, and the inner consisting of Hanuman Dhoka and the main palace. It also houses two museums. Important ceremonies, including the coronation of the Nepali monarch, are held in the Kathmandu Darbar Square. Most parts of the palace premise are open for tourists throughout the week during office hours.
Tundikhel It is a huge green field situated at the center of the city of Kathmandu. Ratna Park, the open Air Theatre and Royal Nepal Army Pavilion lie on either sides. It also includes the Nepals Army headquarters and Dasharath Stadium (Dashrath Rangashala).
Mahankal Sthan Situated on the western side of Tudhikhel, Mahankal Sthan preserves the ancient pagoda style temple of Mahankal. Appreciation of this fine example of ancient art and architecture is a reward in itself.
Dharahara and Sunadhara Dahrahara literally means tower. This 59.29 m tall tower was built in 1883 AD by the then Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa. It is also known as Bhimsen Stambha. Now the tower is open for the public for take view of Kathmandu valley. Sundhara, golden water fountain, was also constructed by Thapa around the same period and is situated at the foot of the tower. The place can be approached very easily as it is the main city area near Sahid Gate.
Sahid Gate (Martyr’s Memorial) This monument standing at an important place of the city was built in memory of four martyrs: Shukra Raj Shastri, Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Ganga Lal Shrestha and Dashrath Chand, who scarified their lives to bring an end to the autocratic Rana regime. The memorial arch of Sahid Gate contains the images of the martyrs and late king Tribhuvan, the Father of Nation.
Bhadrakali Temple Situated at the eastern edge of Tundikhel, this temple contains the image of Bhadrakali (one of the nine forms of Bhagwati). This temple is also called Lumarih temple and is regarded as one of the main Bhagwati temples of Kathmandu.
Singha Darbar Singha Darbar is a gorgeous palace built is Neo- classical style. The palace was once the private property of Rana Prime Ministers and now it houses the Secretariat of Nepal government and the Parliament. Some decades ago, some parts of the palace were destroyed by fire, however, restoration was made immediately afterwards.
Narayanhiti Darbar Narayanhiti Darbar is the royal palace of Nepal. It is named after the famous water spout, Narayanhiti. Until few years back, national could see the interior area of the palace on Mondays and foreigners could see it on Thursdays, but it is restricted now.
Keshar Mahal To the west of the Royal Palace stands Keshar Mahal, a palace built in Neo-classical style. The interior area of the palace presents a view of the fine decoration and structure of Rana palaces. The building now houses an impressive library with good collection of books and manuscripts. It also houses the Ministry of Education and Culture. It remains closed on the government holidays and on Saturdays.
Balaju Water Garden The water garden of Balaju is situated 5 km northwest of Kathmandu at the foot of Nagarjun hill. The garden, Mahendra Park and famous 22 water spouts dating from the mid-eighteen century form a wonderful sight. There is also a swimming pool. Buses to the Balaju can be found at the old bus park near Bagbazar.
Taleju Taleju, being the family goddess of the ancient kings of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, there are temples of Taleju in each of the old palace in these cities. Among these three Taleju temples, the one in Kathmandu is the biggest and is considered to be of greater significance. Mahendra Malla built it in 1563 AD. There are other temples too in the Hanumandhoka premises but the temple of Taleju is the tallest of all. On four sides of this temple, smaller temples stand that offer some of the finest examples of Matrika art.
Akash Bhairab A three storied temple in the main market avenue, called Indrachok. The image of Akssh Bhairav is displayed outside for a week during Indra Jatra, the festival of Indra, the God of Rain.
Ashok Vinayak The small but very important temple of Ashok Vinayak is situated behind of Kasthamandap. Also known as the Kathmandu Ganesh or Maru Ganesh.
Living Goddess Kumari Nepal has an extraordinary custom of worshipping Kumari (virgin, the symbol of purity). She is worshipped as an incarnation of Taleju Bhagvati (A Hindu goddess) and is reverently installed as Kumari or living goddess. The house where she is installed thus is called Kumari Ghar (the house of Kumari) which was built by Jaya Prakash Malla in 1757 AD. One Kumari Ghar is in Kathmandu to the south of Hanumandhoka. There is one each in Patan and Bhaktapur. However, the Kumari of Kahmandu is considered to be have significance in many aspects. Kumari of Kathmandu is selected from among the small girls of the priestly Buddhist community, Shakya. A group of celebrated persons including Bada Guruju and Raj Guruju select a girl from the this community through a difficult and deliberate process, which examines her purity from the religious point of view, as well as her fearlessness. Once she is selected she resides in her shrine with the decoration that shows her divinity- a kind of golden crown on her head, a big Tika on her forehead and a thick collyrium swear around her eyes. She continues to resume the position with divine grace till she is disqualified. She is disqualified on two reasons. Firstly her getting into puberty and secondly natural calamities like death or less of tooth or a wound causing bleeding.
The king and almost all of his subjects pay homage to Kumari. She is worshipped in grand manner on occasions like chariot procession, which is described in the chapter devoted to the festivals of Nepal. The Kumaris of the Patan and the Bhaktapur are, chosen from different communities by comparatively less illustrious persons but they have the same religious ground.
Seto (White) Machhendranath The double storey pagoda style temple of Seto Machhendranath is situated near the road between Asan and Indrachok in Kathmandu. Inside the temple there is white image of Machhendranath and around the temple, there are Chaityas (Buddhist Shrines) of different sizes. In addition, there is a rich variety of images, paintings, intricate carvings and other artistic ingenuity.
Thousands of pilgrims flock to the temple on the occasion of Ratha Yatra, the chariot procession (Wooden chariot) which is celebrated every year in the month of Chaitra (March-April).
Tripureshwor Temple Lying at the right bank of the river Bagmati in the southern side of Kathmandu city, this big pagoda style temple has a shapeless Shiva Linga in its sanctum. On its four corners, there are small size temples of Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha and Devi. Historical records show that the temple was built by the Queen Lalita Tripurasundari Devi Shah in 1818 AD.
Swoyambhunath The Stupa of Swoyambhunath is located on a hillock nearly two miles west of the city of Kathmandu. Swoyambhu means self-existent one. The Stupa was given the name because of the belief that Adi Buddha appeared on his own accord from one of the lotuses in this place.
A prayer wheel encircles the Stupa of Swoyambhu with Om Manipadme Hum inscribed on it. There are four images of Adi Buddha in all four direction of the Stupa. This projection has a pair of un-winking eyes with the peculiar nose below on all four sides. Buddhist scriptures describe them as Tantradi, Mantradi and Yantradi, which are supposed to operate the whole universe. Tympanums and thirteen signs crown this square projection. Each of the tympanums bears the image of Adi Buddha and the thirteen rings indicate of thirteen heavens.
Budhanilakantha Narayana The famous image of Budhanilakantha is located about 8 km north of Kathmandu city. The six meter long image, supported by eleven serpent heads and reclining and carved serpents as bed, is partially submerged in small pool of water. This image has four hands, the upper right and left hand hold “Chakra” (disc) and “Gada” (club) while the lower right and left hands hold “Padmabija” and Sankha (conch shell) respectively.
Some historians are of the opinion that this image was installed in the place by Vishnu Gupta in 7th century. Vaidics, Saivas and Buddhists attach equal reverence to this temple.
Pashupatinath The famous temple of Lord Pashupatinath lies on the right bank of holy river, Bagmati. It is about 5 km northeast of core town of Kathmandu. Gopal Vamshavali, the oldest ever chronicle in Nepal, states that the temple was built by Supuspadev, a Lichhavi king, who ruled here in around 464-505 AD. However, another ancient chronicle states that this temple was in the Linga shaped Devalaya before Supuspadev constructed a five storey temple. The temple was renovated at different periods and finally it took the present shape during the period of Shivasimha Malla (1578-1620 AD). Later it was renovated for two times: in 1674 and in 1697 AD.
The temple is square-shaped and it is in pagoda style. It stands in the middle of the spacious courtyard. It has four silver/gold gilt doors on four directions and all the available space is filled with carvings and paintings. Even the struts depict various deities in different postures.
Around the temple of Pashupatinath, there are other smaller temples such as: Vasuki, Chandeshwor and Kirtimukha Bhairava (built in 7th century), the temple of Brahma (9th century), Kotilingeswor, the temple of Unmatta Bhairava, Muktimandap, Radha Krishna and Parthiveswor (1470-1678 AD).
According to the Hindu scriptures, Pashupatinath is one of the most important places of pilgrimage. As the literal meaning of the word “Pashupatinath” is lord of all the animals of the universe, it is supposed to have control over all the living beings, human and non- human alike. Vedas and Puranas (sacred books of Hindus) elaborately described the four-faced Lingas that enshrine the sanctum of the temple. The four faces are described as the symbol of four Dhamas (four holiest places of the Hindu pilgrimage) and four Vedas (sacred books of Hindus). For these reasons pilgrims from different parts of the world flock to Pashupatinath in all seasons. The visitors can be counted in thousands everyday and in lakhs in the special occasions like Maha Shivaratri.
The significance of the place is recognized in the international level too. Pashupati area is included in the list of the world cultural heritage.
Guheswari temple Near Pashupatinath is bolted another historic and holy temple of Guheswari. Only Hindus are allowed to enter the temple courtyard.
Chandra Vinayak The temple of the Chandra Vinayak is situated about 200m north of Chabahil Stupa. This double tiered brass-roofed temple houses a tinny image of lord Ganesh, the elephant headed god.
Red Machchhendranath and Minnath The pagoda of Machechhendranath built in 1408 A.D. is situated in Tabahal. For six months the deity is taken to Bungamati.
Bagbhairava (Tiger without Tongue) The temple of Bagbhairava is located at Kirtipur, an ancient city to the south of Kathmandu. It is believed to have been built in 16th -17th century. The image of Bagbhairava in the form of Bagh (tiger) enshrines the sanctum in rectangular form. The pagoda style temple has 3 storeys. There are conspicuously ancient stone images of different shape and size in the spacious courtyard. First storey is full of paintings based on different legends.
Bouddhanath The Stupa of Bouddhanath lies 8 km east of Kathmandu. This ancient colossal Buddhist stupa is one of the biggest in the world.
Sundarijal It is famous for its scenic beauty. There are magnificent waterfalls, cataracts and rocks formations. It is an ideal picnic spot- just a short hike away from the motorable road.
Chobhar Situated 9 km southwest of Kathmandu, this place is famous for its gore. All the water of the Valley drains through it. There is a small but picturesque, temple of Adinath on the top of a hill from where one can take in a panoramic view of snow-capped mountain peaks.
The zoo Situated at Jawalakhel, the zoo has many animals, birds and reptiles in its collections representing mostly the Himalayan fauna. There is a beautiful pond built in the 17th century.
Bajra Barahi Situated in a small woodland park, it is about 10 km south of Patan near the village Chapagaon. A visit to Tika Bhairav and Lele from here is worthwhile.
Phulchoki Located about 10 km southeast of Patan, this 2,758m hill is a good spot for hiking. A Buddhist shrine is situated on the top of the hill, which can be reached by Jeeps or on foot.
Jala Vinayak The temple of Jala Vinayak is situated at Chovar, on the right bank of Bagmati on the way to Dakshankali. A huge boulder, which enshrines the place, is regarded as Ganesh, the elephant headed son of Shiva and Parvait. People come here to pay homage to this deity for the success in their lives. Historians are of the opinion that the design of the temple belongs to the 17th century.
Gokarna This lovely Royal Games Sanctuary, also known as Gokarnasafari Park, lies about 10 km northeast of Kathmandu. Many wild animals such as spotted deer can be viewed in the sanctuary from an elephant back. On the northern side of Gokarna, is a pagoda of Gokarneshwor Mahadev.
Adinath The Buddhist temple of Adinath is located at Chovar hilltop to the south of Kirtipur. The temple has 3 storeys. The upper roof is made up of bronze sheets and the lower two are made of ordinary tiles. The tympanum, struts and gates of the temple are full of excellent woodcarving. Married women pay homage here with the hope of being blessed with child.
Sikhara Narayan This temple of Narayan is located at Pharping on way to Dakshinkali. The image of Trivikarma enshrines the sanctum of the temple. It is believed that a Lichhavi King, Haridatta Varma, built the temple.
Dakshin Kali The famous shrine of Dakshinkali is situated near a small stream 2 km south of Shikar Narayan temple of Pharping. The deity of the shrine is called Dakshinkali. Dakshin means south and this shrine is situated in the southern coordinal point of the valley of Kathmandu. The area around the temple is extremely beautiful and the pilgrims visiting the place are counted in thousands especially on Saturdays.
Kirtipur About 5 km (three miles) southwest of Kathmandu, perched on a twin hillock, 12th-century town Kirtipur was an independent kingdom and ultimately the last stronghold of the Malla kings when, in 1769-70, Prithvi Narayan Shah marched in to conquer the Valley. It withstood a prolonged siege, during which the Malla army taunted Prithvi’s Gorkha forces as they hurled them back down the fortress-like hill. The insults were a mistake and when Kirtipur finally fell, the vengeful Gorkha ruler ordered his men to amputate the noses and lips of all Kirtipur men, the only exception being those musicians who played wind instruments. Now only the ruined walls remains remind Kirtipur’s 8,000 residents of this epic battle. Kirtipur is a place of trade and cloistered learning.
On top of the hill to the south, eight shrines decorated by stone images encircle a huge stupa, the Chilanchu Vihar. There are many Buddhist monasteries around the stupa. On the hill to the north, which is higher, some Hindus have settled around a restored temple dedicated to Uma Maheshwar. The three-storied Bagh Bhairav temple stands at the high point of the saddle between the two hills, a place of worship for both Hindus and Buddhists.
It is decorated with swords and shields taken from Newar troops after Prithvi Narayan Shah’s 18th- century victory. It contains an image of Bhairav, manifested as a tiger, and the turn above the main Miktum shows Vishnu riding Garuda, and Bhairav attended on either side by Ganesh and Kumar.
From the temple there are striking views of the valley and the brightly in colored patch-work of farm fields below, with the villages of Panga and Nagaon in its south-east.
You can take a path through the rice from Kirtipur to Panga, which was established by the Mallas as a fortress town to stall invaders from the north. None of its six or so temples dates beyond the 19th century. The path continues from Panga to Nagaon, a name that means ‘new village’
Part of nearby Tribhuvan University’s campus sprawls across the farmlands near this city. The traditional occupations, apart from farming, are spinning and weaving. At Kirtipur’s Cottage Industry Centre, 900 hand looms spin fine cloth for sale in Kathmandu.
Although it has withstood the earthquakes that have caused so much damage elsewhere in the valley, Kirtipur has been unable to withstand the ravages of time. Yet, decayed and neglected as it is, a walk beneath the exquisitely-carved windows of the town’s multi-storied houses, laid out on terraces at different levels, all linked by ramps and sloping paths, reveals an ambience that seems to belong to the Middle Ages.
The main approach is by a long flight of steps that enter the town, which is settled on the saddle between the two hills, beside a small lake.
Name of district Kathmandu Headquarter Kathmandu City Area 545 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, Kavrepalanchok and Sindhupalchok West: Dhading , Makawanpur, Nuwakot North: Nuwakot, Sindhupalchok South: Bhaktapur, Lalitpur and Makawanpur Major rivers Bagmati, Bishnumati, Manohara, Dhobikhola, Tukucha (Ikshumati) and Machhekhola Location Longitude: 850 10”- 350 32” Latitude: 270 27”- 270 49” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, and Cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 25.70 C Minimum: 11.40 C Rainfall 1306.57 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Newari, Tamang, Gunung, Sherpa, Magar, Maithili, Rai, Bhojpuri, Sunwari, Tharu, Abadhi, Rajbanshi, Satar, Danuwar, Santhali and others Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless, trunk call, UTLs, Cell Phones Tourist attraction centers Kathmandu valley as a whole Lakes and Ponds Taudaha, Indradaha, Nag Pokhari, Rani Pokhari. Balaju Water Garden Waterfalls Sundarijal, Chobhar, Matatirtha Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouses, Motels, Friendly Homes Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Research Center, Nursing Homes, Ayurvedic Hospital, Medical Clinics Medical Collages
Bungamati and Khokana The 16th-century Malla king who ruled Kathmandu from Patan, concerned that his subjects might move too far from the city to serve its defense, and thus established two settlements Bungamati and Khokana near the Karma Binayak shrine, amid fertile fields. During a major drought, the king sought the blessings of the rain god, Machhendranath, at a temple in India, inviting the deity to come and settle in the Valley. He built a shrine at Bungamati where, sometime in the last decade of the 16th century, it became the custom to keep the image of the Rato Machhendra during winter, moving it back to Patan by palanquin in summer.
The village is noted for its strongly stated, shikara- style Rato Machhendranath temple. The adjacent Lokeshwar shrine contains an image of Bhairav’s massive head in full, demoniac fury. Yet another shrine, Karma Binayak, stands on a tree-clad hill and beyond that, 10-minute walk away, is a brick-paved village famous for the manufacture of mustard oil, Khokana. It has a temple dedicated to the nature goddess, Shukia Mai, or Rudrayani. Rebuilt after the 1934 earthquake, its main street is noticeably wider than in similar villages.
Satungal, Balambu, Kisipidi The first, Satungal, was built in the 16th century as a fortress to thwart invaders from the north. Many of its 1,000 residents work in Kathmandu. Its main square is notable for the two-meter (6.5ft) stone image of a seated Buddha on a freestanding platform. Nearby, to the north of the square, steps lead through an embellish gate to a Vishnu Devi temple.
Several inscriptions testify to the antiquity of the second village, Balambu, built more than 1,000 years ago during the reign of Lichhavi dynasty, but it was fortified later. Its main feature is a two-storied Mahalakshmi temple, set in the central square, and some smaller temples.
Among the three-storied houses, which line the square, one is dedicated as the God house of Ajima Devi. The third village, Kisipidi with its lush green trees and small-stonewalled gardens, is renowned for the two-storied Kalika Mai temple in its centre.
Thankot Travel on along the main highway, the Tribhuvan Raj Path, and after 2 km (1.2 miles) you will come to the fourth village, Thankot, built by the MaIIas, and later converted as fortress by Prithvi Narayan Shah. Its name, in fact, is translated as ‘military base’. On a hill above the village, stands an impressive two-storied Mahalakshmi temple, much admired for its carved tympanum and columns, erotic carvings, open shrine, and images of kneeling devotees.
Four kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest to it stands the 2,423- meter (7,950-foot) peak of Chandragiri, ‘Mountain of the Moon’, reached by a trail through a dense forest of bamboo, pine and sal trees. Back on the Raj Path, look for a monument of King Tribhuvan, built to commemorate the restoration of the monarchy after the Rana regime.
There is another monument along the road which honors the man who built it in between 1953 and 1956 -- Indian engineers and Nepali labourers. Before the road was constructed, goods were moved laboriously from India to Nepal by railway, and then from the Tarai by ropeway to Daman, and by porters to Kathmandu.
The Lele Valley Road Two of the valley’s most ancient villages, Chapagaun and Lele, date from Lichhchavi times. The road to them cuts through a green and yellow quilt of mustard and paddy fields stretched out beneath the hazy grey-blue foothills of the Himalaya. Standing on a high plateau at the edge of another valley, 16th-century Sunakothi has a shrine to Bringareshwar Mahadeva, which houses one of the most sacred lingas in Kathmandu Valley. Next to the shrine is a two-stored Jagannath temple.
Now the path climbs gently upward through the emerald, terraced fields to Thecho, with its brightly decorated Balkumari temple.
There is another temple, to Brahmayani, in the north of the village, guarded by the deity’s vehicle a duck atop a column, with the usual lion on the steps of the two-storied temple.
Two kilometer (1.2 miles) from Thecho, guarded by a metal Ganesh shrine and a statue of Brahma beside a huge yoni, the road enters Chapagaon where, as legends say, one of the Malla kings sent his son into exile for founding a caste of his own. The central square contains two temples, both two-storied, dedicated to Narayan and Krishna. The struts carry incredibly detailed erotic carvings. Close by, in a single-storied building, is an image of Bhairav, the village’s major deity. South of Chapagaon are the two small hamlets of Bulu and Pyangaon.
King Anand Malla, the founder of the Bhaktapur dynasty, is said to have built seven new villages in the east of Kathmandu Valley. Of these, three were already in existence -- Banepa, Nala and Dhulikhel. The four villages that he built were Panauti, Khadpu, Chaukot and Sanga, although some lie outside the valley. Nonetheless, King Anand Malla’s vision gave Banepa and Dhulikhel, situated as they were on the main Silk Road from Kathmandu to Tibet, much greater status and strategic value.
Sanga and the Araniko Highway The road climbs out of the valley over a pass, 5 km (three miles) east of Bhaktapur. There is a small lane to the north, off the Araniko Highway, that takes you into Sanga, where a vantage point offers an amazing panorama of the entire Kathmandu Valley. Despite its antiquity, the historical merit is a small Bhimsen shrine to commemorate a Kathmandu legend that, when the valley was a lake, Bhimsen crossed it by boat, rowing from Thankot in the west to Sanga.
From there, the Araniko Highway zigzags steeply down into the lush Banepa Valley and the village from which the valley takes its name. Standing at the foot of a forested hill, much of the village was razed by fire in the early 1960s, but it remains the main commercial hub for the surrounding hill areas. Banepa’s Chandeshwari shrine overlooks the valley from the top of a hill to the northeast of the town.
Northwest, a rough trail leads to Nala, seat of a Buddhist meditation site, and Lokeshwar temple, about 100 meter (330 feet) west of Nala, through the old Bhaktapur road. Pilgrim shelters surround the temple, which has a water tank in front of it. A steep alley in the village centre takes you to the four-storied Bhagvati temple.
Shivapuri Wildlife Reserve Geographical location: About 12 km (7.5 miles) north of Kathmandu. Vegetation: Ranges upwards from cultivated terraces through the scrubland dense oak forests. Most of the subtropical trees are covered in lichen and moss and surrounded by ferns. Fauna: Common forest birds such as flycatchers, barbets, thrushes and eagles.
NTB and CBNRM in Sankhu In November 2001, the researcher, Ramesh Chandra Bandhu Bhattarai was assigned by NTB and DDC, to develop a study in community-based, village tourism, natural resources management project. Community-based natural resources management was discussed and basic socio-economic information was gathered. It was discovered that although the community had already been briefed on CBNRM and had expressed their desire to embark on it, the concept was still somewhat vague.
Sankhu area Dealing with tourists is not a new experience for the people of Sankhu. Contacts with tourists have been regular since 1951s. During such encounters, the Sankhu residents were encouraged to explain their culture by performing traditional dances, craft production, story/Bhajan/hymn and other activities. With the development of the trust, the community has become more organized and has gained some power to bargain and negotiate a price for the services it provides to tourists.
Sankhu Bazaar This Bazaar is called “Sankhu Bazaar of thousand houses” having own identity and all preserved Newar traditions and cultures. Suntol, Puklachhi and Bajrayogini VDCs constitute the Bazaar. This is the first city built in the Kathmandu valley.
Sankhu is an old historical Bazaar, more than 3,000 years old, situated at the eastern tip of Kathmandu at a distance of 17 km. Before 1960, Sankhu was a crossroad for Tibet or Lhasa for business purposes. The name of Sankhu Bazaar was different in different periods in history. As mentioned and described in the Vamshabali, this Bazaar was ruled by Manichud Maharaj in the name of “Shanketu Nagar”. In the Kaligat Sambat 1801, this Sankhu Bazaar was built by uniting seven different villages. As described in the Vamshabali and folk tales, king Shankh Dev once ruled this Bazaar. Similarly, in the Swasthani story, it is mentioned that the King Nawa Raj ruled in the name of Lawanya Desh. Nowadays, it has two names, in Newari and Nepali language “Sakhwa” and “Sankhu” respectively. Being a historical and old Bazaar, still there exist lot of temples, statues, Shila Patra, Guthis and festivals.
Historical Structures The Sankhu Bazaar was built as the first Bazaar in Nepal with facilities of roads, sub roads; sewerage and public building like “Satal”, “Paati” and “Dhoka” were built. For the entrance the Sankhu Bazaar, there were nine gates, of which five exist today, which have historical importance and short description of each is given below.
Bhau Dhoka (Bride Gate) The “Bhau Dhoka” is the main entry gate of the Sankhu. The meaning of “Bhau” in Newari Langauge is bride. When the male people get married from the outside of the Sankhu Bazaar, the bride enters from this “Dhoka” so it was called “Bhau Dhoka”.
Sanga Dhoka (Daughter’s Gate) This “Sanga Dhoka” lies in the Sun Tole. When the daughter of Sankhu gets married with the resident outside of Sankhu Bazaar, they are sent off from this gate.
Dhunla Dhoka (Dwaya Gate) All kinds of ritual processions enter Sankhu through “Dhunla Dhoka”. It lies in the Dhunla Tole. Particularly this gate is important for Bajrayogini Jatra (festival), all the chariots of the Bajrayogini enter from this Dhoka (gate).
Mahadev Dhoka (Shiva Gate) The “Mahadev Dhoka” lies in the Bajrayogini, Salkha Tole. From this Dhoka, the dead bodies of Sankhu Bazaar is taken out for the funeral rituals.
Historical Courtyard As mentioned in the Vamasabali, the Sankhu Bazaar was a separate kingdom before the period of Malla. During the Malla period, Sankhu was under the Bhaktapur kingdom for some time. Existences of Layaku (Darbar square) is the evidence of Shakhu being a separate kingdom. Talejukot and other religious places also are seen. During the Bajrayogini Jatra, the sword of the king of Nepal is brought from Hanumandhoka Palace to Sankhu and this is kept on the throne. Other courtyards are Narayan Chok, Malli Chok, Dware Chok and Nasal Chok.
Population Newari community predominante this Bazaar and there is not any single house in the Sankhu Bazaar besides of Newar community still today. Hence, the culture, language, traditions, homogeneity unite for the religious functions. Sankhu people do not wear Haku Patasi and Jyapu dress. According to population census of 2001, the total population of Sankhu is 11096 with total household numbers of 2155. The population of Sankhu Bazaar is close composition of Newar ethnicity with different clans and caste groups such as Joshi, Shrestha, Bajracharya, Malla, Jyapu, Kumha, Sayami, Bhan, Chhippa, Nau, Kau, Naya, Jogi, Po etc. They are indigenous residents and they believe/worship the religions both Hinduism and Buddhism. Brahmin, Chhetri and Tamang populate surrounding areas of Sankhu. Majority people of the Bazaar speak Newari or Nepal Bhasa, Tamang and Nepali.
Area, Location and Boundary Sankhu Bazaar lies at 17 km northeast of Kathmandu. Indrayani is 2 km to its west, Sindhupalchok district in the north and Changunarayan, Bhaktapur, in the south. The Bazaar lies at the height of 1402 ft above sea level. The total area of the Bazaar is 200 sq. km. approximately, in which forest occupies 632.58 hectares; irrigated land for agriculture occupies 1946 hectares.
Bajrayogini Jatra The Bajrajogini Jatra is the greatest festival of the Sankhu Bazaar. This festival is celebrated on the full moon day of Chiatra month. The chariot of the goddess Bajrayogini is taken down to the Sankhu Bazaar from the temple, which is at a distance of 2 km. The festival is celebrated for 8 days. Fourth day is the important day for jatra. On last day of Jatra, the chariots are taken back to the temple. Both Hindus and Buddhists worship.
Asa Archives Located on the western fringe of the old Kathmandu, the archives possess an exceptional collection of over 6,000 loose-leaf handwritten books and 1,000 palm-leaf documents. The rare collection is an insight into the library tradition of medieval Kathmandu. The oldest manuscript here dates back to 1464. Most of the manuscripts are in Sanskrit and Nepal Bhasa.
Manichud The area lies in Shivpuri Range from where Sunrise and Sunset can be viewed.
Museums of Nepal Nepal - a land of many wonders - is often called an open air natural and cultural museum. Some of the important museums worth visiting are as listed:
The National Museum Located at the western end of Kathmandu and a few-minute walk from the famous Swayambhu stupa, the museum has a large collection of weapons, art and antiquities of historic and cultural importance. It was initially built as a collection house for war trophies and weapons. The museum has extraordinary collections of weapons, locally made firearms captured in the various wars, leather cannons and relics of natural calamities like the Great Earthquake. Other artifacts include ancient statues, paintings, and murals.
The Natural History Museum Located on the southern slope of Swayambhu hill, the museum has a collection of different species of animals, butterflies and plants. The special feature of this museum is a serial display of diverse life species from prehistoric shells to stuffed animals, birds, crocodiles and other exhibits. Amid the stuffed include cats, goats and guinea pigs, some exotic creatures of Nepal like Danphe pheasant, the gharial crocodile, the Himalayan black bear and the barking deer.
The Tribhuvan Memorial Museum Located inside the Hanuman Dhoka Palace complex, the museum displays all the events, personal belongings and mementos of the late King Tribhuvan.
The Mahendra Museum Exhibits the cabinet room, office chamber, the personal belongings and the creations of the late King Mahendra. It is also housed in the same building.
The Birendra Museum Located inside the same palace complex, the personal possessions of late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah are displayed including the royal attires donned during various state and historic occasions. Also there are gifts, medals and honorary titles received from heads of state and others.
Lalitpur Patan is also known as Lalitpur, the beautiful city. It was in Patan that the Malla kings ruled, lived and worshipped, and that is why its Darbar Square is surrounded on all four sides by inspiring temples and shrines built specifically in relation to the palace. The square itself is a study of the various styles of architecture that have made their homes in this courtyard. If there were any truth in the story that King Ashoka erected the four stupas next to the palace, it would make Patan the oldest existing Buddhist city. Until recently, Patan had its own entity, and travelling from Kathmandu to Patan was like crossing from one town to the other. There is little demarcation, with the traffic flowing from the streets of Kathmandu across the Bagmati Bridge into the industrial areas of Patan. But once you step into Darbar Square, you move into another world.
Sightseeing Right at the entrance to Patan’s Darbar Square, another royal mall, is an octagonal Krishna temple near an immense copper bell cast in the 18th century by Vishnu Malla and his queen, Chandra Lakshmi, Traditionally, the bell’s deep sonorous clanging summoned worshippers, but it was disc, used as an early warning system in the event of emergencies: like fires, earthquakes and raiding armies.
The Royal Palace is made up of three chok (courtyards). The gate to the oldest, Aul Chok, is guarded by two stone lions. Another smaller courtyard enclosing the Bidya Mandir stands within the quarter of the old Patan royal family. To the south of Mul Chok lies Sundari Chok and a recessed bath called Tusha Hiti, stone Nagas. The delicately carved figures that adorn the side of the bath are stunning in their detail and in quality of their craftsmanship. Originally, eight miniature statues of the Ashta Matrikas earth mother goddesses Bhairava and Nagas (serpants) were carved; some are missing today. Finally, a gilded stone spout feeds water into the bath.
On the other side of Mul Chok, beyond the Taleju Bhawani Temple, is the shrine of Degu Talle, patron god of the Mallas. Patan’s most imposing monument is the sculpture of King Yoganarendra Malla seated on a lotus atop a six-metre (20-foot) pillar in front of the Dega Tule Taleju temple. He ruled at the beginning of the 17th century and it is still popularly believed among Patan folk that one day he will return to take up his rule again. For this reason, one door and one window in the palace always remain open to welcome him. Siddhi Narsingh Malla built the three-tiered building in 1640. Hidden in the shadow of the chok to the north is Manga Hiti, spouting water through three carved crocodile heads. People still line up to refresh themselves in the cool water.
The temple, that faces Manga Hiti, the Bishwa Nath Mandir, suffered severe damage during a storm in 1989. It has since been reconstructed. The temple next to it, the three-storeyed Bhimsen Mandir, is well maintained for the simple reason that it is the patron god of the traders and so is supported and kept up by its devotees. . Parts of the temple are painted in silver, the rest gilded.
The Krishna Mandir, facing the Mani Keshab Narayan Chok, has conspicuously different architecture from the other Newar temples. It resembles the Hindu temples of south India and borrows heavily from the Mughal era. Intricate black stone pavilions form the first and second levels. The elegant central shikara (tower) is gilded at the top. Thousands of devotees each year celebrate Krishna’s birthday, Krishnajanamstami. One of the most beautiful temples in the country, and generally regarded as a masterpiece of architecture, the Krishna Mandir is built entirely of limestone and is the legacy of King Siddhi Narsimha Malla, who reigned for 41 years in the 17th century. In 1682, the king’s son, Shri Nivasa Malla, restored the undated Bhimsen temple after it was damaged by fire. Since then it has been restored once more, following the 1934 earthquake. The gods make Kathmandu tremble frequently.
When King Prithvi Narayan Shah swept into the Valley in 1768 to oust the Mallas, the 14th-century Royal Palace was badly damaged. However, its ornate gates, delicately-carved struts, statues, open courtyards and many rooms conference halls, sleeping chambers, kitchens and so forth recall the glory of Malla architectural splendor.
A statue of a gilded Garuda at the top of a column faces the Krishna Mandir in prayer. Another figure, shaded by a Naga meditating atop a pillar is King Siddhi Narsingh Malla. Behind him, the oldest temple in the square, dedicated to Char Narayan, is a two-storey brick structure, dating to 1565, which celebrates four of Vishnu’s 10 avatars.
The next temple is Hari Shankar, followed by an eight-sided Krishna Temple not to be mistaken for the Krishna Mandir. Two stone lions guard its stairway. Further back, the Bhai Dega houses a Shivalingam with a huge bell hanging from two pillars. Set next to the Krishna temple is a three-storied Vishnu temple notable for its tympanums, the ornate triangular recesses set between the cornices of its low gables. One of Patan’s oldest temples, Charanarayan, is believed to have been built around 1566 by King Purendra, although lately, architectural historians suspect it belongs to the 17th century. The struts of this two-storied pagoda building are embellished with lively and acrobatic erotica either inspiring, or inspired by, the Kama Sutra and enough to give any gymnast food for thought.
Patan’s treasures are not confined to the immediate precincts of its Darbar Square. At a distance of five-minute walk, there is a Golden Buddhist temple; further at 2 km lies another Buddha shrine, Mahabuddha. There is also Kumbheshwar, one of two five-storied temples in Kathmandu Valley where Shiva is believed to reside for six months of a year during the winter before leaving to spend summer with his consort Parvati on the crest of Gaurisankar. At the southwestern edge of Patan is Jawlakhel,
Name of district Lalitpur Headquarter Lalitpur Town Area 413 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Bhaktapur, Kabhrepalanchok, and Sindhuli West: Kathmandu North: Bhaktapur, Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok South: Makawanpur. Major rivers Bagmati, Godawori, Nakkhu, Khani, Kodkhu, Tungun, Thotne, Durlung and Manohara Location longitude: 850 14”- 850 26” latitude: 270 22”- 280 50” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.60 C Minimum: 10.70 C Rainfall 1232.6 ml Predominant language, culture Newari, Nepali, Tamag, Sherpa, Danuwar, Magar, Guring, Maithili, Rai, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Satar Communication Post office, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Patan in whole Lakes and Ponds Guwaldaha, Katuwaldaha, Godawari Kunda, Nagdaha,Bojho Pokhari, Saraswatidaha Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Research Center, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Around Patan The outskirt of the ltown locates valley’s largest Tibetan camp and a centre for Tibetan handicrafts. The refugees remain busy carding wool and weaving carpets. In the first building, rows of women in traditional costume sit on the floor, one to three on a carpet, weaving traditional patterns, chatting and singing. In the next building, old women and men comb the wool before it is spun into threads. Shops display these handicrafts for sale. Portraits of the king and queen of Nepal and the Dalai Lama hung down from the walls on to a maze of carpets, blankets, woven bags and small coats.
Jawlakhel Zoo The zoo is near the craft shops in the industrial area, where a selection of exotic South Asian animals, especially Himalayan species are kept, and remains open daily.
Patan Museum Located in the residential palace compound of the Keshav Narayan Chok inside the Royal Palace Complex at Patan Darbar Square. There you can see exhibits dating back to the 11th century or even earlier. Some 200 objects of more than 1,500 in the national sacred art collection have been selected for permanent display. They are mostly cast in bronzes and gilt copper with work that covers both Hindu and Buddhist iconology.
Bhaktapur About 16 km (10 miles) east of main Kathmandu city lies Bhaktapur. It is probably the most visited of the three historic cities, nicely compact and only a brief walk from Nyatapola, the tallest and most popular of Nepal’s pagoda temples. Like Kirtipur, Bhaktapur is a medieval town locked in centuries-old beliefs and traditions. But, unlike Kirtipur, the town is economically robust; walking its streets you find artisans at work, craftsmen producing their wares and modern facilities.
Also known as Bhadgaon city of devotees, the name of the ancient city indicates its religious antecedents. King Ananda Malla is reputed to have founded the town although it is more likely that a group of villagers involved in trade with Tibet slowly came together to give it’s the present shape. Bhadgaon reached the pinnacle of its glory during the Malla era and Bhaktapur has maintained its individuality mainly by virtue of its self-sufficiency and isolation from Kathmandu.
Fields still encircle the town, cultivated by Bhaktapur’s farmers, working since centuries. The town grows its own crops. The women wear the distinctive black patasi bordered with a bright red strip. The town’s Darbar Square is usually overrun with tourists, who sometimes stand there stunned, not only by the incredible, dimensions of the Nyatapola Temple but also by the nonstop hurly-burly of hawkers, pedestrians and children who occupy the place by day and seemingly by night. Most seek sanctuary in a tearoom, where a good hour can be spent sipping the piquant local tea and studying the erotica in the area.
Getting there As you travel from Kathmandu, you pass big open field, Tundikhel, and the Siddha Pokhari, a water pond before entering the city. The pokhari is four centuries old and has a group of temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu and a stupa nearby. Local residents believe it to be the home of a large snake. If you continue along the road through Bhaktapur, take left to enter the Darbar Square to see the town’s fine monuments. The right-hand fork takes you into a residential area with many traditional houses.
Sightseeing Darbar Square was badly damaged by the earthquake of 1934 and it lost many of its large temples. However, the 1989 earthquake spared the temples and leveled instead about 200 traditional houses. Now the Darbar Square does seem much emptier than those at Kathmandu and Patan.
After the main entrance, the two statues flanking the small gate in front of the police station, are of Ugrachandi Durga, depicted with 18 arms, and Bhairav, with 18 arms. The arch of the gate, built of lime-plastered brick in the 18th century by Bhupatindra Malla, is a depiction of the face of glory. It looks out on three remarkable temples of different style, whose divine proportions are concealed by all being huddled together. One, the single-storied Jaganath, houses an image of Harishankara; the second, a two-storied Krishna temple standing in front of it, contains images of Krishna, Radha and Rukmani; and the third, the Shiva Mandir, is built in the Shikhara style, four porticoes each with a niche above it for plated images of gods.
The temple opens its doors only once a year, during the Vijaya Dashami festival celebrations, when Taleju’s golden statue is placed on the back of the horse, stabled in the courtyard, and led around the town in a procession. During the festival the goddess is believed to take up residence in the south wing of the building. The adjacent palace is renowned mainly for its 55-windowed Hall of Audience, an elaborately carved balcony and its collection of woodcarvings, some damaged in the 1934 earthquake. It is a prime example of the artwork of Kathmandu Valley, regarded by many as it’s finest.
One of the carved windows is believed to be the handicraft of Bhupatindra Malla. His statue in sitting position, hands folded reverently before Taleju faces the famous Golden Gate, or Sun Dhoka, which is the most expensive artifact in the country, commissioned in 1754 by King Jaya Ranjit Malla to adorn the outer entrance to the Taleju temple.
The gate is made out of copper, overlaid in gold. Like many Newar structures, it has both Hindu and Buddhist influences. At the top of the frame is a carving of Garuda, the lights falls during sunrise and sunset. When the gate catches the sun’s rays it glitters and sparkles. On the left, before going through the gate, a restored portion of the old palace is used as the National Art Gallery. Hanuman and Narsingh guard the gallery gate. A fine collection of thangka is displayed in the gallery.
Beyond the Golden Gate is a courtyard that leads to other courtyards. The sides of the chok are festooned with delicate and beautiful carvings. Two sacred choks definitely worth mentioning, but out of bounds to non-Hindus, are the Taleju and Kumari choks. The entrance of Taleju chok is on the left, the gate to Kumari chok on the right.
Sundari Chok was the ritual-bathing place of the king. The large tank is decorated with mainly statues of deities. At the centre, an impressive naga (Snake God) rises from the bottom of the tank, facing another almost identical carving. The tank, which is now dry, used to be filled with water from the nearby hills. The former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl reconstructed the Chaysing Mandap, destroyed during the earthquake in 1934, as a gift to the Nepali people. It took three years to restore it from sketches.
The next most prominent part of the square is the awesome Nyatapola Temple, Nepal’s tallest ancient structure, built by King Bhupatindra Malla. It stands in five tiers and is balanced by the five foundation platforms at the base. From as far back as you can stand, it looks like a fretted pyramid climbing up to the clouds, reaching a height of more than 30 meters (100 feet). Its inspiration is said to have been a form of appeasement to the terrifying menace of Bhairav, who stands in another temple. There seems to be more than just fancy to this tale.
Jaya Malla and Patta, two wrestlers said to have the strength of 10 men, are at the bottom. Next come two huge elephants, each 10 times stronger than the wrestlers, then two lions, each as strong as 10 elephants, two griffins, each as strong as 10 lions and, finally, on the uppermost plinth, two semi-goddesses, Baghini in the form of a Tigress, and Singhini, as a lioness, each 10 times stronger than a griffin.
Siddhi Lakshmi, to whom the temple is dedicated, is consequently the most powerful of all these figures. She is depicted with other deities on the struts. Even the caretaker priests can only see the image of the goddess inside the temple at night. It is a pattern of guardian sentinels found nowhere else in Nepali temple architecture and is considered significant evidence of the measure of appeasement required to placate Bhairav.
This Darbar Square also boasts a large bell that was used both to summon worshippers and to sound alarms, particularly if there was a night curfew. There are other temples in the Darbar Square for Kumari, Vatsala, Durga, Narayan, Shiva and Pashupatinath. The last is the oldest in the city, built around the end of the 15th century by the widow and sons of King Yaksha Malla in his memory, though some argue Jita Malla, father of Bhupatindra, built it much later, in 1682. Bhaktapur legend says Lord Pashupatinath appeared before him in a dream and ordered him to build the temple.
Another legend has it that the king wanted to visit the temple at Deopatan but was unable to cross the Bagmati in full flood, and so he ordered another temple resembling Pashupatinnth to be built in Bhaktapur. Bhaktapur’s famous peacock window is tucked away in a side road near the Pujari Math. The pottery bazaar is a good example of the robust cottage industries that thrive in the town. During seasons, they work in the fields drying rice drying in the sun. Sometimes rafts of fiery red chilies are seen drying on the roofs and roads. Bhaktapur is famous for its delicious juju dhow the king’s curd. Flat earthen containers full of yoghurt can be found in some stores.
Thimi Just 3 km (1.9 miles) west of Bhaktapur is Thimi, the Valley’s fourth-largest settlement. Founded during the Malla rule, it takes its name from the Nepali word for ‘competent’ Thimi. This is an honor bestowed upon Thimi’s residents by the Bhaktapur monarchs for their skill in fighting off the rival kingdoms. It is a town of potters, where families pass on their skills from generation to generation, turn out handsome china-ware fashioned from the clay of the valley fields, vessels for domestic use and art works such as peacock, flower vases and elephant representations.
The colorful 16th-century Balkumari temple is the town’s main shrine and nearby, in a much smaller dome-shaped shrine, is a brass image of Bhairav. But Thimi is more renowned for being neighbor of two other villages Nade and Bode, most riotous of Nepal’s New Year (Biskct Jatra) celebrations. Nade is noted for its multi-colored, three-storied Ganesh temple. Bode boasts a Mahalakshmi temple, a two-storied 17th- century temple built, according to local legends, in 1512, after Mahalakshmi appeared in a dream to the king of Bhaktapur.
Every year on New Year’s Day, the square around the Bal Kumari temple in Thimi witnesses a spectacular gathering of 32 deities carried in elaborate multi- roofed palanquins under ceremonial umbrellas. Later, the crowds move across the field to Bode to witness another New Year ritual (see Festivals).
Nagarkot Nagarkot is situated 32 km east of Kathmandu, at an altitude of 2,175m above sea-level. The place is famous for the panoramic view of Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest), Mansaslu (8,463m), Ganesh Himal (7,134m) and others. A motorable road links Nagarkot with Bhaktapur. However, trekking is equally enjoyable. It is one of the most scenic spots in Bhaktapur district and is renowned for its spectacular sunrise view in the Himalayas when the weather is clear. Visitors often travel to Nagarkot from Kathmandu to spend the night so that they can be there for the breathtaking sunrise. Nagarkot has turned to be one of the best spots to view Mt Everest as well as other snow-capped peaks of the Himalayan range of eastern Nepal. It also offers an excellent view of the Indrawati valley to the east. With an elevation of 2,195 meters, Nagarkot also offers a panoramic view of the Kathmandu valley and is described by visitors, a place whose beauty endures year round. Many visitors prefer to visit Nagarkot in the spring when surrounding valleys break out in a rich kaleidoscope of different colored flowers. The flowers are beautiful against the serene backdrop of the snow-covered mountains. Ever popular among the tourists are the short treks and picnics, which Nagarkot offers. Treks from Nagarkot are unique and delightful. For anyone who wants to have an adventure without exerting much effort, a hike to Nagarkot’s surrounding areas would be a good option. One can traverse short distances on trekking trails and come close to nature’s wonders such as the outer of verdant forests, flower-covered meadows and unusual rock formations.
Changu Narayan temple (First written stone script found in Nepal) On another hilltop 11.5 km (7 miles) east of Kathmandu, the valley’s oldest temple, Changu Narayan, stands in almost derelict splendor, its struts and surroundings covered with hundreds of finely detailed, delicately carved erotic depictions. It is one of the best examples of the temples dedicated to Vishnu. Founded in around 4th century, it represents the best Nepali art and architecture and it is difficult to imagine a more stunning example of what Kathmandu valley is all about. Woodwork, metalwork and stonework combine in dazzling harmony nowhere to more effect than in the sculptures of Bhupatindra Malla, the 17th-century Malla king. The most popular route to the temple is from the Sankhu road across the Manohara River. After a walk uphill, you come to a pair of stone elephants. A few small temples flank the two-tiered main shrine, and a twin-roofed pagoda. On the right, a temple houses two sculptures. Vishnu, in the form of Avatar Narsingh, a lion-headed figure, is depicted destroying the king of demons. The other statue is of Vishnu Virkantha, a dwarf with six arms.
Further back on a terrace, an upright, flat black stone bears an image, created between the 5th and 6th centuries, of Narayan reclining on Ananta at the bottom and Vishnu with 10 heads and 10 arms going through the different layers of the universe. It is surrounded by later sculptures from the 9th century. A man-sized image of Garuda, with a coiled snake around his neck, graces the front of the main temple and also dates back to the 5th or 6th century. One of the oldest and most prominent Lichhavi inscriptions, which stand beside it, records the military feats of King Mana Deva, who ruled for 27 years from 464 to 491 AD. Though fire and earthquake have often damaged Changu Narayan and its environs, this link with its ancient past remains. Life’s rhythms in the cobble stone square remain unchanged, too, with pilgrims’ platforms and lodges surrounding it and the central temple. Besides the spectacular views from the top, the area around, Changu Narayan offers many good opportunities to walk and explore. Along the ridge to the east, a two hours walk takes you to the road to Nagarkot.
Name of district Bhaktapur Headquarter Bhaktapur Town Area 139 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Kavrepalanchok West: Kathmandu and Lalitpur North: Kathmandu South: Kavrepalanchok and Lalitpur. Major rivers Godawori, Dorkhu, Sisneri, Hanumante, Manohara, Durgakhola, Khasang, Khusung and Chankhu. Location Longitude: 850 21’- 850 32” Latitude: 270 37” – 270 44” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate and Cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.80 C Minimum: 1.70 C Rainfall 1362.2 ml Predominant language, culture Newari, Nepali, Tamang, Maithili,Sherpa, Gurung, Bhojpuri Communication Post Office, Telephone, Cell Phone Tourist attraction centers Bhaktapur City, Changunarayan, Nagorkot Suryavinayak , Thimi, Sisneri, Nagadesh, and Sano Thimi Lakes and Ponds Siddha Pokhari, Bhaju Pokhari, Kamal Pokhari Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Ayurvedic, and Clinics, Medical Collage
The National Bronze Art Museum This has a collection of some of the finest pieces of bronze created by valley artisans. It holds 900 of such artifacts. The artwork ranges from Malla to the later period. The oldest work of art is believed to be from the 11th century.
The National Art Gallery Located in the Palace of Fifty Five Windows in Bhaktapur, is believed to be the first in the Kathmandu Valley to use glass, much coveted by the ancient rulers. Within the palace are beautiful paintings of erotic motifs and animals. The stone- work is worth seeing and a room outlines the life and times of the Shah kings of Nepal. Also on display images of famous people and scriptures that are among the most valuable in the kingdom.
The National Woodwork Museum Located in Dattatreya Square, Bhaktapur this museum often surprises visitors as it contains very finely carved pillars, windows, doors, and struts. Also, there are wood carving samples that go back to the 15th century, King Yaksha Malla.
Dhulikhel Back on the highway at Banepa, you can drive on to Dhulikhel, which commands a prominent location on top of a high hill. There are several sights worth seeing in Dhulikhel. This ancient town is situated 30 km east of Kathmandu on the side of the Araniko Rajmaarga (Kathmandu–Kodari Highway). The Newari town of Dhulikhel offers a traditional atmosphere along with spectacular views. Once an important link in the ancient trade route to Tibet, Dhulikhel has a glorious past which can be witnessed in the lovely building and intricate woodcarvings found in the shop-lined streets and temples.
Dhulikhel’s main square contains a Narayan shrine and a Harisiddhi temple. The village houses are renowned for their beautiful, carved woodwork. In the north on a hill above the village stands a magnificent three-storied Bhagvati temple, famous for its ceramic-tiled facade. It is also a good vantage point for viewing major peaks of the Himalayas. The mud-and-thatch houses in the sweltering valley below are home for a community of low-caste Nepali. Dhulikhel remains one of the trade gateways between the Kathmandu valley, eastern Nepal and Tibet.
Rolwaling Himal: The Rolwaling Valley Rolwaling is a Sherpa word that means ‘the furrow’. It has been shaped by the floodwaters that burst out of a 9 m (30-foot) opening in a sheer rock wall on the east bank of the Bhote Kosi River, fascinating those who visit it. Many pilgrims believe that this is the spot where Shiva thrust his trident into the mountainside to let the waters cascade down to the holy Ganga. It is also here in the upper side of the Rolwaling Valley that members of the Sherpa and Tamang communities talk about the yeti that elusive Abominable Snowman. Sherpas guides, who live in the valley, claim they have seen the animal so often. Perched at around 2,000m (6,501) feet), just a few hours drive from Kathmandu, the small pleasant village of Charikot, with hotels and shops, is gateway to this region.
Further trek from Rolwaling valley is only on foot. Three dining chairs stand outside the teahouse in the tiny 10-house hamlet of Piguti, its quietness broken only by the scurry of dogs chasing a lone trekker through its one street. There, too, trekkers are few, leaving Rolwaling’s much splendor including the amphitheatre of Gaurisankar, to delight only the rare visitor. Higher up, one, two, and three storied houses cling to the edge of the precipitous paddy fields, as cotton wool clouds dab the little knolls and grassy shoulders with a chill-like balm to ease the sting of the sun.
The paths that climb up the mountain pi’s veer left and then right, across perilous-looking rope or steel- made suspension bridges, many run on a toll basis. Slowly, the trail winds through the forests to the highest settlement a small Sherpa community. The 200 families of Beding live in small but striking stone houses with elegantly painted and carved exteriors. There is also a monastery. Among many holy places of the Himalayas, Beding is remembered as the refuge of Guru Padma Sambhava, the mystic Tantric recluse who chose the small cave in the cliff, about 150 m (500 feet) above the monastery, as his place of meditation 1,200 years ago. Above the Rolwaling Himal, the greatest mountain in the world looks down in all its serene majesty. At the far end of the Bhote Kosi gorge, 7,180 m (23,557- foot) Menlungtse and the slightly lower 7,144 m (23,438-foot) mass of Gaurisankar stand sentinel, like Lhotse and Nuptse, guarding Everest.
Getting there The actual starting-point of the trek is the small village of Charikot, which you can reach by van from Lamosangu.
Panauti One of the most fascinating Newar towns in the area, Panauti stands at the confluence of two rivers south of Banepa, in a small valley surrounded by mountains. People say that Panauti is located on a single stone base. There used to be a king’s palace in the main village square and the town is noted for two fine examples of Malla temple architecture - a three-storied 16th-century Indreshwar Mahadev temple and a Narayan shrine, both of which have been restored.
Architecturally and historically, the Indreshwar Mahadev temple is regarded as one of the most important of all the Newar shrines in Kathmandu Valley. It is thought to have replaced an earlier one built in the llth or 12th century. The carving on its struts conveys the profound serenity of Shiva, in his many incarnations. Two shrines guard the courtyard, one to Bhairav, another to an original nature goddess. This is simply a symbolic stone. There is another Krishna temple on a peninsula at the confluence of the two rivers, with several Shiva lingams nearby and a sacred cremation Ghat.
On the other side of the Bungamati River, a famous 17th-century temple has also been restored and a chariot festival is held there each year. It is dedicated to Brahmayani, chief goddess of Panauti after Indreshwar Mahadev. Just for the fact that it lies no more than 50 km (30 miles) from the crest of the great peak of 8,013 m (26,291-foot) Shisha Pangma, or Gosainthan, in the west, and much the same distance of 8,848 m (29,028-foot) Everest, in the east, Kodari would be remarkable. But this tiny settlement is still more extraordinary because it is only 1,768 m (5,800 feet) above sea level, yet only 100 km (60 miles) from Kathmandu. Though this short distance takes about four to five hours to cover by car, the time passes swiftly, for the road cuts through a wonderland of raging rivers, valley towns and forested slopes.
Araniko Highway (Rajmarg) You set out along the valley highway in the early morning sun. Diffused by the soft spring haze of April, it casts a golden halo over the surrounding hills. Casual brickworks dot the fields and the buildings display the earthy color of the material. Suddenly, you are over the hills and the road plunges several hundred meters in a series of hairpin bends.
Like most roads in midland Nepal, the Chinese-built Araniko Highway is frequently damaged by landslides and wash-aways that send whole sections and sometimes the vehicles on them plunging to the swollen torrents below. Though it winds through the foothills of the greatest mountain range in the world, the hills themselves are so high and sheer that views of the snowcapped peaks above them are rare.
The exception is at Dhulikhel at the top of a narrow ridge just below the pass out of the valley, a thin ribbon of road with steep drops on either side offers a stunning vista of the Himalaya, including Everest. Drive on, and after a few kilometers, at Dolalghat, a long low bridge crosses the wide bed of the Sun Koshi, just below its confluence with the Indrawati River. The bridge is almost half-a-kilometer long and the crystal-clear water invites you in spring sunshine. The bridge, built in 1966, is a reminder of Nepal’s progress in the years since it reopened its borders.
On to Kodari Back on the Araniko Highway, not far beyond Lamosangu, on the Sun Koshi, stands one of the country’s first hydroelectric schemes built in 1972 with Chinese aid. Despite occupying only a tiny fraction of the world’s land surface Nepal’s hydroelectric potential totals an impressive 2.27 per cent of world capacity.
The power station lies some 900 m (3,000 feet) above sea level between Lamosangu and Barabise, and it is north of bustling Barabise that the road begins to climb upwards. All along the road, the sparse winter and spring waters are tapped for irrigation and domestic use through ancient but well- kept aqueducts, models of traditional engineering dug out above the side of the streams and lined with stone, with the fast-flowing water taken off the main body, which soon descends below the level of the aqueduct.
Many visitors stop at Tatopani, where hot springs from the raging cauldron beneath the Himalaya have been tapped, pouring forth day and night in an everlasting supply of running hot water. At occasional intervals there is the inevitable temple and at Chakhu, only 15 km (9 miles) from Tibet, there is an improbable circus pitched on a riverbank just below the edge of the road. Eight kilometers (5 miles) beyond, at Khokurn, a temple occupies a tall rock in the middle of the gorge with no indication of how worshippers climb up its sheer rock faces on all sides and a sparkling waterfall leaps and jumps hundreds of metres down the sheer, lush- green wall of the mountain. The perpendicular rock walls of the gorge press inexorably closer and closer. They seem to lean over the narrow ribbon of road that clings so precariously to the hillside.
Where the road cuts beneath a cliff, you may ask yourself what sustains such faith in the power of the rock to suspend itself indefinitely with such a mass of weight pushing down on it and, perhaps more importantly, what sustains the faith of those who pass beneath it. On the hillsides above, seemingly also suspended by faith alone, peasants carve little terraced small holdings and till them with an agility similar to that of the sure-footed native goats. In the raging white waters below, equally nimble-footed, villagers plant primitive but effective fish traps made of withies and bamboo. Then the gorge closes in and, round one more bend, there is an immigration post and beyond that a police post.
Finally, you reach the border, called Friendship Bridge, the source of a thriving tourist trade. Day-trippers disgorge themselves from their coach to be photographed with the Tibetan town of Khasa, 600 m (2,000 feet) higher up the gorge, and the snows of 6,000 m (19,550-foot) Choba- Bahamare in the background.
To the east, in line with Kodari, mighty Gaurisankar, only 35 km (21 miles) distant, remains invisible beyond the rise of the gorge wall.
A yellow line across the middle of the bridge marks the border between Tibet and Nepal. Nepalis can cross the brder unhindered but visitors must have valid a visa back in Kathmandu. Khasa’s Zhangmu Hotel runs an enviable occupancy rate for European and American guests eager to stay overnight on a two-day visa that marks the magic China immigration entry into their passport.
Where the border actually crosses and which side of the hill is Tibet or Nepal is anybody’s guess. On the other side, the road winds back into what, hypothetically anyway, must be Nepal.
In between the two, the waters of the Bhote Koshi rage down the gorge with a thunderous roar, even in dry seasons. It is awesome to think of the Bhote in spate during the monsoons and thaw. The thicknesses of the strong walls that buttress the bridge foundations suggest the power they deflect.
Name of district Kavrepalanchok. Headquarter Dhulikhel Area 1446 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Ramechhap, Sindhuli and Dolakha West: Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur and Sindhuli North: Bhaktpur, Dolakha, Ramechhap, Sindhupalchok South: Sindhuli, Ranechhap, Lalitpur. Major rivers Sunkoshi, Roshi, Indrawati and Kokhajor Location Longitude: 850 24” – 850 59” Latitude: 270 20 - 270 85” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate Temperature Maximum: 33.00 C Minimum: N.A. Rainfall 1299.8 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Newari, Sherpa, Magar, Danuwar, Sunuwar, Rai, Gurung, Maithili, Tharu Communication Post office, Telephone, Wireless, Cell Phone Tourist attraction centers Dhulikhel, Banepa, Dolaghat, Khadpu, Khopasi, Mangaltar, Palanchok, Panuti, Panchkhal Lakes and Ponds Dew Pokhari, Narayan Pokhari, Mahadev, Pokhari,Tarokhaseko Pokhari Waterfalls Tindhaikhola, Shashipani Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Clinics, Ayurvedic centers
Manang lies about 50 km north of Pokhara across the Annapurna range. One fascinating aspect of viewing mountains is their changing mood with the interplay of light. Another interesting phenomenon about mountains is the transformation in their shape and personality when viewed from different directions. If the Annapurna range presents itself as a dramatic wall of rock and ice and the limit of the northern horizon from Pokhara, the same mountain range is transformed into a massive hump of white mass as seen from south of Manang and the individual peaks take on an entirely different character. Manang is rich with Marsyangdi river and a trek along its long course enables one to witness the various stages in the journey of a Himalayan river. Manang stands at the height of 3505m. Villages like Nyeshang, Braga, Pisang, Ngawal, Ghyaru, Tanki and Khagsar are worth visiting. Of these Manang, Ngawl, and Pisang are older settlements while Ghyaru is an offshoot of Ngawal and Tanki is an extended village of Manang. Khabgsar in a western side of the valley may have originally started as a monastic community.
Name of district Manang Headquarter Chame Area 2168 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Gorkha,and Lamjung West: Mustang and Lamjung North: Mustang, Gorkha and Tibet South: Parbat, Kaski, Lamjung and Mustang Major rivers Dudha, Marsyangdi, Nar Location Longitude: 830 40”-840 34” Latitude: 280 27”-280 54” Climate Temperate, Cool temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 16.60 C Minimum: 6.40 C Rainfall 499.4 ml Predominant language, culture Gurung, Sherpa, Nepali, Magar, Newari, Limbu Communication Post Office Tourist attraction centers Chame, Manang, Bhot, Palace of Ghale King, Chaurikharka Tuna-gaun Himalayan Peaks Manasalu, Annapurna I, Annapurna II, Annapurna III,Annapurna IV Lakes and Ponds Dharma Pokhari, Dimla Pokhari, Him Pokhari, Pongkar,Tilicho Tal Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Medical facilities Health Posts, Ayurvedic Centers
Gorkha is at 5-hour drive from Kathmandu and 4-hour from Pokhara. Since direct buses are almost non- existent, change buses at Abu Khaireni and wait for a local bus or minibus to the town. Southwest of Kathmandu, the Trishuli Gorge meets with Mahesh Khola. From the capital to the confluence of the two rivers, you take another major road, the Prithvi-Tribhuvan highway, as scenic as they are dramatic.
Charoudi, the most popular ‘put-in’ place for shooting the Trishuli’s rapids, is a small, one-street hamlet, after which the road drops quickly to Mugling, veering westward over the elegant suspension bridge. Not long after Mugling, take a turn north of the highway to Gorkha which is nestled in the mountains some 18 km (11 miles) from the Kathmandu- Pokhara Highway and is the ancestral seat of the Shah dynasty, rulers of Nepal since the 18th century. Gorkha is just a small town. The facilities, adequate and unpretentious, are not aimed at tourists.
Where to stay Lodgings in Gorkha are simple. Most of them are clustered around the bus stop and are basic. Since Gorkha is off the beaten path for most tourists, rates are relatively cheap. Try Hotel Thakali if you plan to stay near the bus stop. In town, look for Hotel Gorkha Bisauni, which also offers the only western food in town. Stay with dal-bhaat, the most favorite Nepali dish.
Sightseeing King Prithvi Narayan Shah’s old palace still stands on a mountain ridge overlooking this ancient capital, from which the Gorkha soldiers derive their name. From the bus stop, the road passes by the town’s Tundikhel and an army camp. A group of temples stand by the pond-like Rani Pokhari and a stone statue of Prithvi Shah honors Prithvi Narayan Shah’s ancestor. He traveled to Kathmandu and returned with Newar craftsmen, who built most of Gorkha’s ancient buildings, amd are conspicuously Newari in style.
Tallo Darbar, a structure built in the 18th century, stands close to the town centre. It is believed to be the original site of the Gorkha palace, before the Shahs came to rule. The palace on the ridge above the town is Upallo Darbar, the home of the Shah kings. Its unmistakable prominence was both stands strategic and in a sign of dominance.
To reach Upallo Darbar, climb a long flight of stone stairs leading off the main road. The climb takes about 30 minutes but it is well worth the effort. Directly ahead, magnificent mountains stand out in the centre of an east-west span Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu and Ganesh Himal, while behind in the south are the Mahabharata Hills. Ram Shah built the first palace in the 1600s. It has since been renovated and much has been added to its sprawling intersections.
Manakamana Temple The temple of Manokamana, a very popular pilgrimage in Nepal, is a temple of one of the manifestations of the Hindu goddess Bhagwati. Bhagwati is believed to have the power to fulfill wishes. It lies 125 km to the west of Kathmandu. It is a steep three-hour hike from Abu Khaireni on foot. Cable cars also take travelers to Manokamana within 10 minutes.
Name of district Gorkha Headquarter Gorkha Bazaar Area 2505 sq. km Political Boundary East: Dhading and Tibet West: Tanahun, Lamjung, Manang, Chitawan, and Tibet North: Tibet South: Lamjung, Chitawan, Tanahun and Dhading Major rivers Budhi Gandaki, Chepe, Daraundi, Marsyangdiand Trishuli Location Longitude: 810 27” –840 58” Latitude: 270 15”- 280 45” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 25.00 C Minimum 14.00 C Rainfall 1491.5 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Sherpa, Newari, Maithili, Limbu, Rajbanshi, Satar Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Gorkha Darbar, Pokharithok, Bhimsen Thapako Ghaderi,Gorakhkali. Gorakhnath, Manakamana, Mahademandir, Bishnumandir, Ganeshmandir, Hanumandhoka, Bhimsensthan, Nala Gumba, Karjuchhiling Gumba, Rinji Gumba, Manaslu Gumba, Seti Gupha, Sidha Gupha, Bakreswar Gupha. Himalayan Peaks Baudha, Himalchuli.Manaslu, Sringi Lakes and Ponds Kaluchhuma Tal, Naradkunda, Sano Dudh Pokhari, Thulo Dudh Pokhari, Tatopani, Bhulbhulekhar Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Kaski Pokhara is a remarkable place of natural beauty. Situated at an altitude of 827m from the sea level and 200km west of Kathmandu valley, the city is known as a center of adventure. This enchanting city has several beautiful lakes and offers stunning panaromic views of Himalayan peaks. The serenity of lakes and the magnificence of the Himalayas rising behind them create an ambience of peace and magic. So, today the city has not only become the starting point for most popular trekking and rafting destinations but also a place to relax and enjoy the beauty of nature.
Pokhara is part of a once vibrant trade route extending between India and Tibet. To this day, mule caravans can be seen camped on the outskirts of the town, bringing goods to trade from remote regions of the Himalaya. This is the land of Gurungs and Magars, hardworking farmers and valorous warriors who have earned worldwide fame as Gurkha soldiers. The Thakalis, another important ethnic group of this land, are known for their entrepreneurship.
Climate The climate of Pokhara is slightly warmer than Kathmandu with daytime temperature hovering around 15 degrees Celsius in winter and 35 degrees in summer. The monsoon season which lasts from mid- June to mid-September is very wet; in fact Pokhara records the highest rainfall in the country. Best time to visit Pokhara is between October and April. The interests of foreign visitors to Pokhara focus around two districts known as Damside and Lakeside (or Pardi and Baidam, in Nepali, respectively). These two areas, with their strips of hotels and restaurants, are a few kilometers south-west of the main Pokhara bazaar.
Phewa Tal (Lake) Phewa Lake, the second largest lake in the country, roughly measuring 1.5 km by 4 km, is the center of all attractions in Pokhara. The enchanting lake is an idyllic playground. Brightly painted wooden boats and sailboats can be rented on reasonable cost around lakeside.
The lake is neither deep (roughly 47 meters at most) nor particulary clean, but the water is warm and swimming is pleasant if you don’t think about the probable pollution. The eastern shoreline of the lake, popularly known as Lakeside or Baidam, consists of seemingly endless strip of lodges, restaurants, bookshops and souvenir shops. One of the fascinating parts of lakeside is the splendid view of the mountains, especially when the still water reflects the peaks, creating a double image.
Begnas lake and Rupa lake The lakes are located about 15 km from Pokhara at the end of a road that turns north from the highway to Kathmandu. Divided by the forested hillock called Panchabhaiya Danda, the lakes offer the perfect nature retreat because of their relative seclusion. Splendid boating and fishing can be done here. Begnas – Rupa lake watershed is located in the estern corner of the Pokhara Valley (28. 70 N to 28.120 N altitude and 84.50 E to 84.100 E longitudes). This watershade lies, more or less in circular in shape, entirely in the Central Hill Region of Nepal on a relative subsidence zone in between the greater Himalaya and Mahabharat range. It covers an area of 499 km. including low lake valley floors the Begnas and Rupa . Out of this total area, 4.88 km surface is under the lake water. Ferrow and Swar (1978) recoreded the average depths of Begnas and Rupa 4.6 m. and 2.3 m respectively. The subsequent completion of the construction of an earthen dam in 1988/89 artiflcially raised the water level of Begnas lake by 2 m. and its average depth at present is 6.6 m.
Barahi temple This is the most important religious monument in Pokhara. Built almost in the middle of Phewa lake, the two storied pagoda is dedicated to the boar manifestation of Ajima, the protectress deity representing the female power Shakti. Devotees can be seen, especially on Saturdays, carrying male animals and fowl across the lake to be sacrificed in the name of the deity.
World Peace Pagoda The pagoda is a massive Buddhist stupa and is situated on top of a hill on the southern shore of Phewa lake. Besides being an impressive sight in itself, the shrine is a great vantage point which offers spectacular views of the Annapurna range and Pokhara city. You can get there by crossing the lake by boat and then hiking up the hill.
Seti Gandaki (River Gorge) Flowing right through the city, the boisterous river runs completely underground at places. Amazingly, at certain points the river appears hardly two meters wide. But its depth is quite beyond imagination - over 20 meters! Mahendra Pul, a small bridge near the old Mission Hospital, provides a perfect view of the river’s dreadful rush and the deep gorge made by its powerful flow.
Davi’s Fall Locally known as Patale Chhango (Hell’s Fall), Davi’s fall (also known as Devin’s or David’s) is an awesome waterfall lying about 2 km south-west of Pokhara airport along the highway to Tansen. An interesting modern legend says that a foreigner named David was dipping in the Pardi Khola (river). When the floodgates of the dam were opened, it sweept him into an underground passage beneath the fall, never seen again.
Gupteswar Gupha (cave) Gupteswar Gupha, a sacred cave, lies 2 km from Pokhara airport along the Siddhartha Highway leading southwest from the city. The entrance is right across from Davi’s Fall and the cave is almost 3 km long. It has some big hall-size rooms and some passages where you have to crawl on four limbs. This cave holds special value for Hindus since a phallic symbol of Lord Shiva is preserved here in the condition it was discovered. An entrance fee of Rs. 5 is charged and taking pictures inside the cave is prohibited.
Mahendra Gupha (cave) Mahendra Gufa, locally called Chamere Odhaar (“House of Bats”), is the large limestone cave. Shepherd boys are said to have discovered it around 1950. A two hour walk to the north of Pokhara, it is best to bring your own torch to see the stalactites and stalagmites, although most of them have been carted out by souvenir hunters.
The Old Bazaar Pokhara’s traditional bazaar is colorful and so are its ethnically diverse traders. In its temples and monuments, Newar architecture of the Kathmandu Valley is vividly observed. Located about 4 km from lakeside, the market’s original charm is alive and well.
Bindhyabasini Temple Bindhyabasini temple is the center of religious activity in the old bazaar. It is dedicated to goddess Bhagwati, yet another manifestation of Shakti. Worshippers flock here to perform sacrifices, and especially on Saturdays the park like ground takes on a festive fair.
Matepani Gumba (Buddhist Monastry) There is a splendid Buddhist Monastry on the top of the small forested hill above Matepani east of Mahendra pool. It overlooks a large section of the Pokhara city. One find himself lost with time amid the chanting Lamas, colossal guardian images of the Buddha accompanying two other gurus and a prayer house with exquisitely carved columns and friezes.
Bhadrakali Temple To the south of the Buddhist monastery, there is another small but beautiful hill and in this pleasant sylvan setting wjere lies Bhadrakali temple, worth visiting.
Museums Pokhara Museum, located between the airport and Mahendra Pul, reflects the ethnic mosaic of western Nepal. The lifestyles and history of ethnic groups such as the Gurung, Thakali and the Tharu are attractively displayed. . One major attraction is a display highlighting the newly discovered remains of the 8000-year-old settlement in Mustang. Opens daily, except Tuesdays and holidays, from 10 am to 4 pm. Entrance fee is Rs. 5 and there is an extra Rs. 10 for cameras (Tel: 0612041 3).
Annapurna Museum, also known as the Natural History Museum, is located at Prithvi Narayan Campus, east of the old bazaar. Managed by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), the museum has an exceptional collection of butterflies, insects, birds, and models of wildlife as well as samples of various precious and semi-precious stones and volcanic rocks. Opens daily, except Saturdays and holidays, from 9 am to 4 pm. Entrance is free (Tel: 061-21102).
Himalayan View The magnificent Annapurna panorama that’s visible on the northern skyline of Pokhara is quite incredible. The main peaks are Annapurna I to IV and the beautiful Machhapuchhare (or Fishtail Mountaian, so named after its twin peaks). Besides these, you can also see the Himchuli, Varahashikhar, Gangapurna and other peaks. The mountains will probably be hidden in the clouds between April and September. A nice evening on the banks of Fewa Lake with the mountain range as the backdrop is what Pokhara is really about!
Nightlife and Entertainment There is not much of a nightlife in Pokhara other than dining. The town shuts down by about 10:30 in the evening. Until you can hang out in some of the bars and pubs that are becoming trendy in the area. Fishtail Lodge puts up an hour long nightly Nepali cultural show with dances.
Around Pokhara Pokhara is the starting and ending point for many of the popular trekking routes in Nepal. Longer treks (one to three week long) such as the Jomsom trek, Annapurna Circuit, and Annapurna Sanctuary begin here. Check a book on Nepal trekking for more details on this. Otherwise, you can also visit the site of Pilgrims Book House for information on trekking books of Nepal. For those with less time, Pokhara also provides shorter (one to seven days) more leisurely treks around the neighboring hills and villages. The popular ones are:
Ghachowk Trek: Two days, a circuit through Lhachowk to Ghachowk and down to Batulechaur, north of Pokhara, close up view of Fishtail mountain.
Naudanda Trek: Two days, to Naudanda from Suikhet and then back through Kaski, west of Pokhara.
Ghorepani Circuit: Five to seven days long, upto the Gurung village of Ghandruk, great views of the Annapurna range, north-west of Pokhara.
Kahun Danda: Day trip, north east of Pokhara, 1560m in altitude.
Sarangkot: Day trip, great view of the mountain range including Dhaulagiri, north of Fewa Lake at 1592m of altitude.
Rupa and Begnas Lakes: Day trip, 15km south-east of Pokhara, take a bus there and leisurely walk along the ridge that separates the twin lakes.
The origins of Pokhara can be traced to the small trading post of Pokhara Bazaar, which lies 7 km (4.2 miles) away between the villages of Sarankot and Khanu. Off the tourist path, the town is near the Seti River. You can get there with a mountain-bike. Take plenty of water because the ride is mostly uphill.
The town itself is a quiet rural cluster of modest houses and roads lined with trees. The essentially Newari culture is seen in the architecture and the temples left by the early traders. The most important temple is Bindyabasini Mandir on a hillock in the centre of town. A devastating fire in 1949 razed most of the original houses of Pokhara Bazaar, including the old temple. The deity is the goddess Bhagwati and her image is housed in the white main structure. Any one can take a side trip to the south to the Mahendra Pul which crosses the sliver-like gorge cut by the Seti River. To get there, drive to the middle of the first bridge along the Kathmandu Highway. Look below and you see the 4.5 m wide (15-foot) gorge, more than 14 metres (45 teet) deep, carved by the flow of the Seti.
Ram Bazaar, east of Pokhara, is a small but picturesque village, with shops, a school and artisans. The most interesting Tibetan village, just north of the town in Lower Hyangja, is Tashi Phalkhel. Southwest of the airport, beyond Davi’s fall, is Tashiling.
Batulechaur Some miles north of Pokhara, Batulechaur is famous for its Gaine singers, who tell the rich history of Nepal in rhapsodic songs. They play small four-string, violin-like instruments called Sarangi with horsehair bows, to accompany their voices.
Sarangkot At the peak of the 1,600m (5,250 ft) Sarangkot is the remains of a fortress used by King Prithvi Narayan Shah in the 18th century. Go west of Pokhara, past Kaskidanda ridge, to Gyarajati village, where you climb to the summit.
Ghale gaun and Begnas Tal Circuit Ghalegaun and Ghanpokhara in Lamjung district is one of the entranceways to the Annapurna Region, a world-famous trekking destination. The beautiful villages of Ghalegaun and Ghanpokhara lie to the northwest of Khudi at the top of two nearby hills. Ghalegaun, situated at the foot of Lamjung Himal in north central Nepal, is an exotic pristine village endowed with an unparallel scenic grandeur and a home to world famous Gurkha soldiers- the Gurungs. Repository of a unique ethnic culture of Ghalegaun is a true microcosm of stunning natural beauty mixed with an unspoiled ethnic lifestyle. Ghanapokhara is a beautiful village where the concept of eco-tourism is getting momentum. It lies in north of Lamjung district in the close proximity of Ghalegaun at the top of Dashthar Danda at an altitude of 2,100 meters. Ghalegaun and Ghanpokhara are mainly Gurung settlements; they nestle amidst mountains, rivers, streams, waterfalls and green forests. These places command a superb breathtaking view of majestic western Himalayas including Machhapuchhare (6693m) Annapurna (8091m), Annapurna II (7939m) Annapurna IV (7525m), Lamjung Himal, Bouddha Himal (6974m), Himalchuli (6747m) and many more smaller peaks.
The approach to Ghalegaun-Ghanpokhara is a wonderful experience in itself as it goes crossing over the Marsyandi, Khudi and Midim rivers; passing through rhododendrons blossoming along the way amidst the chirping of birds and wild insects. The trekking route passes through dense jungle and villages and impressive waterfalls. Nearby Talayngo Lake and Lami Lake add new dimension to these attractions.
Activities around Ghalegaun include bird watching at Talanygo Lake and visits to the Utter Kanya Temple, Pempro Fall, Batase Cave and the Khudi hydroelectric dam site.
Panchase Panchase is the name of five collective hill peaks. The local traditions link each hill with some deities. The hill being a collection of five peaks possibly give the name of ‘Panchasya’. The panchase is also called as Panchadham, a shrine of five deities. The main hill is considerd as a Jyotirlinga, where Lord Shiva had achieved enlightenment, Siddha Baba Temple, Baraha temple and Pancha Sarobar (pond) at Panchase peak, old Buuddhist monastery at Arthat Dandakharka, Samadhisthal of Shrawan Kumar at Ghuheswori Danda in Bange VDC, Buddhist Gumba at Pumadi, Bhumadi and other temples of god and goddesses and the historical Kot located at different points in the Panchase region are the main cultural resources. Thausands of people visit Panchase Lekh every year, during Balachaturdasi in November and in other occasions, to pay homage to their deities and for thanks giving to their deceased ancestors in the Vedic and Buddhist tradition.
Panchase has religious significance, derived from the legend of Shrawan Kumar of Ramayana epic, saint Chyawan and King Dasharath. All these legendry figures are revered in Hindu mythology. These epic stories and legends could be highlighted to promote pilgrimage tourism especially to those from India and foreign countries with Hindu inhabitants.
Name of district Kaski Headquarters Pokhara Area 1322 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Lamjung and Manang West: Parbat North: Manang and Lamjung South: Tanahun and Syangja. Major rivers Madi, Seti, Modi. Location Longitude: 830 40-840 12” Latitude: 280 6”- 280 36” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine, Tundra Temperature Maximum 26.10 C Minimum: 15.90 C Rainfall 3880.3 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Gurung, Newari, Magar, Tamang, Sherpa, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Rai, Danuwar, Santhali Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireles, Cell Phones Tourist attraction centers Fewa Tal, Pokhara Bazaar, Batulechaur, Hyangja, Lumle, Mahedra Gufa, Bidhyabasini Himalayan Peaks Annapurna Second, AnnapurnaThird, Annapurna Fourth Lakes and Ponds Fewa Tal, Rupa Tal, Begnas Tal, Dipang Tal, Maidee Tal, Khalte Tal. Waterfall Devis Fall Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hopistal, Health Post, Medical Collage, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
The Annapurna Circuit The Annapurna Circuit is the popular name for a 300 km trek in Nepal around the Annapurna mountain range in the Himalayas. The trek reaches an altitude of 5,300 m on the Thorung La pass, touching the edge of the fabled Tibetan Plateau. The magnificent mountain scenery, seen at close quarters includes Annapurna 8,091 metres which was the first 8,000 metre peak to be climbed, the magnificent ice pyramid Dhauligiri 8,167 metres, once the home of the legendary Buddhist Guru Padmasambhava, and Machhupuchhre 6,993 metres, considered by many to be the most beautiful mountain in the world.
The trek follows ancient paths used as trade routes between Nepal and Tibet. These paths have long facilitated the flow of cultures and religions in this remote and formerly inaccessible region. Today Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism and the mysterious Bon-Po religions coexist and interpenetrate one another in this region. The unusually wide range of climatic zones in such a small area as the path ascends from 900 metres to 5,300 metres provides a chance to see many different plants and animals, and the different ways of life of the many peoples who live there.
Ghandruk Ghandruck is promoted and sold by various tour operators all over Nepal, but mostly it is connected to ACAP (Annapurna Conservation Area Project) of the Nepal Trust for Nature Conservation. Touristic programs are required to purchase a trekking permit to enter the Annapurna Area. This permit is provided by ACAP. The entry free or permit helps educate childen and adults, form and strenghthen local institutions, build insfrastructure, develop local income sources, conserve natural and cultural heritages.
Lamjung Lamjung, said to have been derived from Lama-dzong or the castle of great Lama, holds a special fascination for all, it being our native locality. Geographically, it is the name of an administrative district lying between Grokha and Kaski. The district has an area of 4,000 sq km. The northern frontier of the district is dominated by high mountains like Annapurna II, Lamjung Himal, Manaslu and Himchuli. Through this amphitheatre of refulgent peaks, meanders south the Marsyangdi River that is joined by numerous tributary streams like Madi, Khudi Ngadi, Dordi and Chepe. The landscape has steep slopes and deep valleys flanked by long ridges. In the cultural context, the higher northern part of the district is inhabited by tribal Gurungs and in the southern lower hills and valleys, the Brahmins and Chhertis predominate.
Name of district Lamjung Headquarters Besisahar Area 1934 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Gorkha West: Kaski and Manang North: Manag and Gorkha South: Tanahun, Kaski and Gorkha Major rivers Marsyangdi, Madi, Khudi, Chepe, Daraudi, Paundi, Chhar, Midim and Risti Location Longitude: 840 4”- 840 85” Latitude: 280 3”- 280 33” Climate Sub-tropical Temperate, Cool temperate, Alpine, Tundra Temperature Maximum: 25.90 C Minimum: 15.00 C Rainfall 1232.6 ml Predominant culture Nepali, Gurung Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Besisahar, Kuncha, Bazzar, Tarkughat, Gaunsahar Himalayan Peaks Manasalu, Annapurna II, Manasalu South, Himalchuli, Lamjungchuli, Baudha Himal Lakes and Ponds Baraha Pokhari, Dudha Pokhari Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Ayurvedic, Center, Clinics
Sirubari The village of Sirubari lies in ward number 4 of Panchamul VDC of the Syangja district. The management committee takes responsibility of visitors, their welcome, accommodation, sightseeing and guiding. The village consist of 60 households of which many offer guest acconmmodation. The Sirubari tour includes transportation, accommodation, food arrangement cultural entertainment and guide/porters.
Sirubari is a typical Gurung village in Nepal that offers real Nepali life style. Eight-day program to Sirubari village is a short drive and walk from Pokhara. Detail itinerary of Sirubari Village tour/trek includes village tour and trekking. Sirubari is very friendlier for tourists to live. Sirubari village is a totally unspoiled Gurung settlement. While in trek, lunch is available either at Sirubari Guest House or a Thakali Hotel hills at 1700 m above sea level. The village is a unique example of eco-cultural tourism.
Name of district Syangja Headquarters Syangja Bazaar Area 1208 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Tanahun and Kaski West: Parbat and Gulmi North: Kaski South: Palpa Major rivers Kali Gandaki, Andhi Khola, Bhat Khola, Suraudi Khola, Fusre Khola, Jyagdi Khola, Doshain Khola and Darau Khola Location Longitude: 830 27”- 840 6” Latitude: 270 52”- 280 13” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate Temperature Maximum: 26.20 C Minimum: 14.30 C Rainfall 1462.2 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Magar, Gurung, Newari, Maithili, Sherpa, Tamang, Rai, Limbu, Tharu, Rajbanshi, Abadhi Communication Post Office, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Syangja Bazzar, Putalikhet, Nuwakot, Waling, Bazzar, Chapakot, Ramdi and Sirubari Accommodation facilities Local Lodge, Hotel Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Health Post, Health Center, Clinics
Bandipur Midway on the daylong drive between Kathmandu and Pokhara lays the hilltop settlement of Bandipur, a Newar town with its age–old flavor still intact. You climb through pristine forest on the historical trail at Dumre Bazare to a town that had hardly changed. Well preserved Bandipur today invites travelers to experience its unique offering rich hill culture, mountain views, and hiking. Bandipur is tantalizing and yet undiscovered.
Unlike trading posts in the Nepal hills, Bandipur has retained its age-old cultural attributes temple shrine, sacred caves, innumerable festivals, and Newari architecture that resemble the old Kathmandu Valley.
The place names around Bandipur indicate that the Magar, whose chieftains ruled numerous principalities of today’s central Nepal, originally inhabited the surrounding region, known as Tanahun. When Prithivi Narayan Shah of Gorkha set out to expand his dominion, Tanahun was a powerful adversary that was overcome only after a severe battle. Majority of the current residents are originally traders from Kathmandu Valley who made their way to Bandipur and settled there. When the Kathmandu – Pokhara highway opened connecting Bandipur, trading families immediately forsook their ancestral town to seek economic opportunities elsewhere. Through trade, Bandipur Newar prospered, some becoming Nepals’ foremost businessmen, professional and bureaucrats. While the Newar are predominant in Bandipur, Magar and Gurung ethnic groups inhabit the hillside growing rice, millet, corn and mustard on terrace fields. Women when not working in the fields can be found weaving cloth and basket. The Magar and Gurung men have traditionally joined Gurkhas regiments in the India and British armies. Brahmin, Chhetri, Kami, Sarki, Damai also made Bandipur their home since the Magar first settled here.
Bandipur town stretches east to west on its mountain saddle reflecting the architecture of the Kathmandu Valley in its pagoda roofs, latticework windows and stone paved streets. The dwellings are in the form of compact town houses, built of brick often with ornate windows and doorways. The roofs are of Tin or Slate that is mined nearby. A distinctive aspect of the bazaar is a covered veranda that extends through its entire length, from shop front to shop.
Caves The cave on Bandipur’s hillsides has great religious significance for the local people. A two-hour hike through the forest leads Paatalidwar, or the gateway to the underworld, with a Shiva shrine at its deepest part. This cave is also known as Swargadwari, or gateway to Heaven. Another cave, discovered only a few years ago, is known as the Siddha Cave and is said to be the largest discovered cave in the country and probably the biggest in Asia.
The Gadi is a fort on a hilltop northeast of Bandipur believed to have been established by Mukunda Sen. The fort’s trenches are still visible. The vew of the Himalayan range from this high point is fully worth looking. Eastward bend of the Marsyangdi River is seen below and one can follow the river’s course northward as it disappears in to the Manang region between the Annapurna and Manaslu massifs. Tibet lies beyond the place.
Mukhundeswari Mukhundeswari is considered on important tribal “power place” located on top of a high summit. It is a 2-hour walk from Bandipur. It is a especially revered for a shrine decorated with many bells tridents.
Name of district Tanahun Headquarters Damauli Area 1551 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Gorkha and Chitawan West: Syangja, Palpa, Kaski, Nawalparasi North: Lamjung, Kaski, Syangja and Gorkha South: Palpa, Chitawan, Nawalparasi and Gorkha Major rivers Marsyangdi, Kali, Seti, Madi, Chundi, Kalestee, Risti, Naundi and Faundi Location Longitude: 830 57”- 840 34” Latitude: 270 36”- 280 05” Climate sub-tropical, Mild temperate, Cool temperate Temperature Maximum: 25.80 C Minimum: 15.00 C Rainfall 2057.8 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Magar, Gurung, Newari, Tamang, Sherpa, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Rai, Tharu, Danuwar Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Damauli, Bandipur, Chundi-Ramgha, Tanahu-Soor, Chabdi-Barahi, Dhor-Barahi, Jyamruk- Bhanjhyang, Dewaghat and Rising Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Mustang Isolated landscapes and lavishly adorned monasteries, great rivers and fields created through the painstaking labor of humans over time, with the highland that extends endlessly northward, and the immaculate white peaks of Annapurna and of the Nilgiri standing in the south, Mustang is tightly sealed off from the outside world until 1992. The tiny Kingdom of Mustang preserved within its boundaries, a culture and a way of life little changed over the centuries. Still presided over by its hereditary dynasty, this unique kingdom- within-a-kingdom has Tibetan Buddhist monasteries that predate any monasteries within Tibet, and a well preserved Tibetan Buddhism that has thrived with little influence from the Chinese to their north or the Nepalese to their south. In fact, many say there is more of Tibet in Mustang than there is in today’s Tibet.
Jomsom Many visitors find their most lasting impression of Nepal not from the ancient temples in the urban valleys but from visits to places like Jomsom and its exhilarating spiritual environment. Jomsom area is not only the most popular trekking destination in Nepal but also the gateway to Upper Mustang “Kingdom”. Jomsom is also the gateway to Muktinath shrine that holds great religious significance to both Buddhists and Hindus.
Jomsom can be reached through trekking, small aircraft or helicopter, as there are no motorable roads leading to Jomsom. About 8 daily flights connect Jomsom with Pokhara, each flight taking about 20 minutes. Pokhara is in turn connected to Kathmandu by road and air, which is about 30 minutes, by air and 5 hours by road.
Usually, a short flight takes the passengers from Kathmandu to Pokhara and then to Jomsom. The flights to Jomsom are held early in the morning when there are no clouds covering the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri Ranges of the Himalayas
Muktinath This small but famous three-storied temple is situated at an altitude of 12,460 ft, about 110 km north of Pokhara. The temple is to the north of Jomsom and Jomsom is air linked with Pokhara, Kathmandu and Bhairahawa. Thus, getting to the temple is not difficult.
The temple contains the image of Jwala Mai (the goddess of flame). The manifestation of the goddess shows harmonious relationship between the Hindu and the Buddhist religion. Devotees of both the religions congregate here to pay homage to the deity.
One of many places of pilgrimage in the hills along Kali Gandaki basin is Muktinath. At 3,800 metres (12,460 ft), its eternal flame draws Hindu and Buddhist alike. Black ammonite fossils, thought of as the embodiment of Vishnu, is found in profusion, and pilgrims travel long distances over rugged trails.
Kali Gandaki Gorge The deepest gorge in the world, Kali Gandaki, is flanked on one side by the daunting massif of Annapurna and on the other, only 35 km (22 miles) away, by the 8,167-metre (26,795 ft) summit of Dhaulagiri. In between, almost 8 km (5 miles) below at 1,188 m (3,900 ft), sits the village of Tatopani.
Lost Horizons For centuries, the Kali Gandaki Gorge has been one of the passes to the mysterious and untouched mountain fastnesses of western Nepal. Northwest of the gorge stand the little-known Kanjiroba Himal, a cluster of mountains that takes its name. Eleven peaks rise above 6,000 m (20,000 ft), including 6676 m (21,902 ft) Kanjiroba Himal. These mountains encircle the ancient Kingdom of Dolpo and the sacred Crystal Mountain to form the natural boundary of the 3,540 sq km (1,367 sq mile) Shey-Phoksondo National Park.
Dolpo came into the kingdom in the 18th century as a result of King Bahadur Shah’s conquests. Dolpo’s neighbouring kingdom, where myth and fantasy seem stronger than reality, is Mustang. It lies on a barren valley floor at around 4,572 m (15,000 ft) of altitude, snug against the Tibetan border on three sides and guarded by formidable 7,375m (24,000 ft) high mountains pierced only by narrow passes.
Massive Dhaulagiri, at 8,167 m (26,795 ft) the world’s seventh-highest mountain, provides the defence, which has sealed Lo, as the locals call it, from the outside world for centuries.
With Dhaulagiri and Annapurna, you are at the frontier of the highest land in the world and ready to open the gateway to some wonderful trekking experiences.
Mustang is reached by a long trek through the Kali Gandaki Gorge. From there you cross over the one, desperately high, south-east-facing pass into Dolpo. Permits are needed for travel to these areas. With one, you can take the scheduled domestic flight either to Jomosom, the nearest airstrip for Mustang, or to Likhu, the nearest airstrip for Dolpo or go on foot with guide and porters from Pokhara.
Sightseeing Fortress walls dominate Mantang - the capital of Mustang kingdom. Its central feature is the massive white-walled Royal Palace in which lives the world’s least- known monarch. Schools are bringing change, but while the youngsters come home filled with stories of space flights, which they have heard, on the classroom wireless, their grandparents still believe the world is flat and shaped like a half-moon.
Lo Mantang, in fact, is the full name of the 2,000 sq km (772 sq mile) kingdom of King Jigme Parwal Bista, founded in the 14th century by the Tibetan warlord Ama Pal. Fabled Mustang, as it is now known on the maps, is only an honorary kingdom these days. King Jigme, the 25th monarch since the 1480s, orders the only gate of the mud-walled capital shut and barred. Twelve dukes, 60 monks, 152 families and eight witches occupy the capital. King Jigme still owns serfs who plough his stony fields for grain crops.
Lo’s treasures are many and priceless: a wealth of Tibetan art, monasteries and forts set in 23 villages and two other towns. Many of Mustang’s monasteries derive their name from the Tibetan phrase meaning ‘plain of prayer’. ‘Mon than’ are carved into cliff faces. You climb ladders to reach them. Other wealth lays in the rocky hills turquoise and rich deposits of alluvial gold in the beds of the rivers. But Lo’s citizens consider the task of panning for this metal beneath their dignity.
Name of district Mustang Headquarter Jomsom Area 3661 sq. km Political Boundary East: Parbat and Manang West: Dolpa and Magdi North: Dolpa and Tibet South: Magdi, Dolpa and Parbat Major rivers Kali Gandaki, Dom Khola , Mustang Khola Location Longitude: 830 30”- 840 10” Latitude: 280 24”- 290 20” Climate Sub-tropical, Cool temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 17.70 C Minimum: 5.50 C Rainfall 1321.7 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Gurung, Sherpa, Magar,maithili, Newari Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Jomsom, Mustang, Trenkar, Muktinath, Dhami, Tukuche, Dana, Tatopani other Places Himalayan Peaks Dhawalagiri, Dhawalagiri I, Mustang. Lakes and Ponds Teligha, Damodar Kund, Tatopani Kund Waterfalls Rupse Accommodation facilities Local lodges Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic
Myagdi Myagdi district, a part of Dhaulagiri zone, with Beni as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,297 sq km and has a population (2001) of 114.
Beni Beni (670m) on a narrow river trace between the Magdi khola and the Kali Gandaki is connected with Mallaj and villages on the east side of the Kali Gandaki by a suspension bridge while another trace leads west along the Myagdi to Darbang and Gurja on the south flanks of the Dhaulagiri. Beni used to be the winter capital of the Malla rulers of Parbat. One of the prominent rulers, Maleba, is said to have built a Shiva temple at Beni in 1697 and a palace seven years later.
Name of district Mustang Headquarter Jomsom Area 3661 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Parbat and Manang West: Dolpa and Magdi North: Dolpa and Tibet South: Magdi, Dolpa and Parbat. Major rivers Kali Gandaki, Dom Khola , Mustang Khola. Location Longitude: 830 30”- 840 10” Latitude: 280 24”- 290 20” Climate Sub-tropical, Cool temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 17.70 C Minimum: 5.50 C Rainfall 1321.7 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Gurung, Sherpa, Magar, Maithili, Newari Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Jomsom, Mustang, Trenkar, Muktinath, Dhami, Tukuche, Dana, Tatopani other Places Himalayan Peaks Dhawalagiri, Dhawalagiri I, Mustang. Accommodation facilities Local lodges Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic
Baglung Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve Besides national parks and wildlife reserves Nepal government has also set aside a hunting reserve at Dhorpatan where controlled hunting of some species is allowed. Covering an area of 1,325 sq km, the reserve is situated on the southern flanks of Mt. Dhaulagiri (8,167m) in the districts of Rukum, Baglung and Myangdi.
The area’s vegetation is characterized by well- developed mixed-hardwood forest at lower elevations and many plant species of drier climate to the north. Tree species include fir, pine, birch, rhododendron, hemlock, oak, juniper and spruce. As in many other protected environments of Nepal, the reserve includes several villages inhabited by hill tribes as well as people of Tibetan descent who supplement farming with trade and animal husbandry. The reserve is one of the prime habitats of blue sheep, a highly prized trophy animal, the main target of hunters. Other game species are ghoral, serow, Himalayan thar, black bear, pheasant and partridge. Endangered species of the area include the red panda and the cheer pheasant.
Controlled hunting is allowed for proper license in certain seasons of the year. Game license is issued by the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation in Kathmandu and there are a few hunting agents who make arrangements for expeditions. Besides hunting, Dhorpatan is also an attractive destination for the trekkers and wildlife enthusiasts.
Name of district Baglung Headquarter Baglung Bazaar Area 2153 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Parbat and Myagdi West: Rukum, Rolpa, Gulmi North: Dolpa, Myagdi and Parbat South: Gulmi, Rukum and Rolpa Major rivers Kali Gandaki,Uttar Ganga, Dhor, Taman, Nisi, Bhuji, Bhim, Dharam, Gaundi, Khate Khola and Hugdi Location Longitude: 820 45”- 830 36” Latitude: 280 5”- 280 51” Climate Sub-tropical, Mild-temperate, Cool-temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 26.60 C Minimum: 19.10 C Rainfall 1016.9 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Gurung, Newari, Maithili, Magar, Limbu, Sherpa, Gurung, Tamang, Sathali Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Baglung Bazaar, Galkot, Dhorpatan, Ghumte, Burtiwang, Hatiya Bazaar, Rajkot, Hukam Maukot, Balewa, Devisthan, Sera, Daha, Naya Bazaar. Himalayan Peaks Himchuli, Chalika, Dhawalagiri, Kagmara, Ghumte Lakes and Ponds Rudra Tal, Jalpa Khagar Tal Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurveidc Cente, Clinics
Parbat Kusma, located on a high level terrace between the Kali Gandaki and the Modi rivers, was a mere garrison depot at the turn of the century but since it was made the district headquarters in 1962, it has a piped water supply, shops, government offices and a high school. The terraces represent a quaternary phase of alluvial deposition and the matrix consists of schist, quartzite and sandstone at various states of compaction and conglomerates are particularly found around Kusma and Baglung. The river terraces have at least four distinct levels corresponding to the successive phases of uplift and deposition and the towns of Kusma and Baglung occupy the more extensive upper levels. Although marginalized from agricultural point of view and generally avoided for its hot climate, the terraces suspend between the neighboring hill slopes and sheer cliff faces above make the dramatical landscape.
Name of district Parbat Headquarter Kusma Area 1093 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Syangja and Kaski West: Baglung, Myagdi, Gulmi Mustang North: Mustang, and Manang South: Syangja, Baglung and Gulmi Major rivers Kali Gandaki, Modi, Mristi, Dhar Khola, Bachha Khola, Seti Beni Khola, and Bhurundi Location Longitude: 830 34”- 830 59” Latitude: 270 58”- 280 39” Climate Mild temperate, Cool temperat, Alpine, Tundra Temperature Maximum: 26.20 C Minimum: 14.30 C Rainfall 1950 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Gurung, Newari, Magar, Limbu, Sherpa, Maithili, Tamang, Santhali Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Kusma, Modi Beni, Phalebas, Birethanti, Seti Beni, Beni Himalayan Peaks Annapurna 1st, Annapurna 3rd, Fung Southern Peak, Modi Peak, Falulet Peak, Ganga Purna Himal, Patal Himchuli, Tent Peak Lakes and Ponds Mallaj Tal, Khairi Barah Tal, Pyasbarahi Tal Waterfalls Sasurdhara Accommodation facilities Hotel Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Gulmi Dhurkot Darbar This historical palace is situated at Dhurkot VDC west from Tamghas, the district headquarters. Jeep can travel throught the rough road. The last and twenty fourth king of this ancient kingdom Bhupatendra Malla built this temple. The palace premises contain an old temple of Khadga Chhatra (Khadga Devi and Chhatra Devi). The people worship and scarify animals in the temple during Bijaya Dashami, Nawami and Chaite Dashain. During the festivals people play sword fight too.
Ishma Darbar This historical palace is situated at Ishmaraj VDC. The palace can be reached through the gravel road on jeep, towards west-south from Tamghas. It is still unknown who built this palace. There is an old Goddess temple inside the palace premises and old weapons too. Sword fight and animal sacrifice is common on eight day of Dashain festival.
Chandrakot Darbar This palace is situated in between Shantipur VDC of Gulmi and Bataka Chaur VDC of Baglung district. From Shantipur, on Jeep, one can cover through the gravel road or one-and-half-hour-walk.
Bichitra Gupha (seven storied cave) The cave is situated 6 km away from headquarters in Vastu VDC. Inside the cave 2-3 hundred people can sit comfortably. This is the biggest cave in the district.
Salime Daha (pond) This place is situated towards west from Dibrung, the third way on foot. The pond is good for sight-seeing. In the forest, white plants are abundant, which are used to make Nepali paper.
Tara Khasekosthan It is in Wami VDC where it is believed that the stars had fallen. There were two holes on the ground but now there is only one. Depth is not measured. Throw a stone, falling cound continues for 5-7 minutes.
Name of district Gulmi Headquarter Tamghas Area 1245 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Syangja, Parbat and Baglung West: Pyuthan, Arghakhanchi and Baglung North: Baglung and Parbat South: Palpa, Pyuthan, Arghakhanchi and Syangja Major rivers Badigadh, Kali Gandaki, Challi Khola, Nisti Khola, Hugdi Khola, Ridi Khola and Dharam Khola Location Longitude: 830 10”- 830 35” Latitude: 270 65”- 280 27” Climate Sub-tropical, Mild-tropical, Cool-tropical Temperature Maximum: 23.30 C Minimum: 14.80 C Rainfall 1516.6 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Newari, Gurung, Magar, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Sherpa, Limbu, Tamang, Tharu Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Tamghas, Resunga, Ridi, Wami, Darbar-Devisthan and Arkulkot Bharse., Musikot Accommodation facilities Hotel, Local Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Charpal Darbar During the period when Chaubise state existed, Gulmi was one of the strongests. Bir Shah established in it 15th centure. In 1843 BS, it turned into Gorkhali State. Shakti Prachanda Shah, the last king ruled till 1872 BS.
Resunga From the district headquarter of Tamghas towards North-eastern side, the hillock is known as Resunga. View of Tamghas Bazaar is clear. This area is 2347m above sea level.
Bishnu Paduka Temple A temple stands on the hilltop of Resunga. The stone scripture here mention the names of Shashidhar and Rana Bahadur.
Arghakhanchi Arghakhanchi is derived from two words – Argha and Khachikot. Popular Hindu epics Ramayan and Mahabharata mention some stories about this district. Arghakhanchi was declared as a separate district in 1961 A.D. Chure and Mahabharata both ranges in Nepal are located in Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts. Altitude ranges from 305 to 2,515 m with total area of about 1,331 sq. km. Argha side of the district sees more settlement. Rest part is covered by forest. Only one river, Rapti, flows from western side of the district.
Name of district Arghakhanchi Headquarter Sandikharka Area 1331 sq. km Political Boundary East: Gulmi, Palpa and Rupandehi. West: Pyuthan and Dang North: Gulmi and Pyuthan. South: Kapilbastu and Dang. Major rivers Ban Ganga, Chutra, Bensi, Mathura, Rapti, Sita, Bangi, Ghauwa and Durga Location Longitude: 820 45”- 830 23” Latitude: 270 45”- 280 6” Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical, temperate. Temperature Maximum: N.A. Minimum: N.A. Rainfall 849.5 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Newari, Maithili, Magar, Limbu, Sherpa, Gurung, Tamang, Satar, Muslim Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers: Narapani, Argharajsthan, Kanchikot, Thanda, Pattharkot, Chutrabesi, Jukena, Uluk,Chatraganj, sandikharka. Lakes and Ponds Jhirradaha, Kamal Pokhari, Khandaha, Shalyangdaha, Gauchaur. Waterfalls Arghotosh (Tilkuwa), Supa Khola Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Clinics.
Palpa North of Butwal, a small eastward spur of the Siddhartha Highway doubles back on itself as it climbs, a few kilometers away, lies Tansen a town of 15,000 famed for the erotic carvings on its Narayan temple. Tansen is renowned for the sheer beauty of its panoramic vistas of the foothills around it as a landscape artist’s Eldorado. Craft industries and traditional Newar houses also make the town a worthwhile stopover. Its Bhairavnath temple, legend says, was constructed with lock, stock and timber beams carried all the way from the Kathmandu Valley by King Mani Kumarananda Sr. in pre-historic age.
Baldengadi Towards west of Baldengadi VDC of Palpa district, a fort is situated named after this Baldengadi. The sight of Himalayan ranges to the plain field of Tarai can be seen from this hilltop. One of the oldest forts Bhagnavasesh also locates here.
Bhairavsthan It is situated at Bhairavsthan VDC, about 10 km west of the district headquarter Tansen. The place is accessible through road transport or on foot takes about 5 minutes. The strategic location of the place helps one to have picturesque view from the hilltop. Pratap Sumsher Rana constructed Bhairavsthan temple, where lies the largest Trishul of Asia. Temple of Bhairav Mai is good place to visit. People believe that Mukunda Sen had kept here Bahairav Mani (a precious stone) from Kathmandu. Hindus believe this as the strongest of the four Bhairavs in Palpa district.
Siddhi gupha Siddhi gupha is situated at Baidhya Gumba VDC. It is one-hour walk through motorable road. The cave lies at hill slope. Inside the cave there is a hall consisting of variety of pictures.
Ranighat Darbar This palace is situated at Baidhyagumba VDC, 2-hour walk from the district headquarter towards north. It is also called as Nepal’s Taj Mahal (one of the wonders of the world in India). Former ward chief Khadga Sumsher built this palace in the memory of his wife Tej Kumari. It is three storied building. Department of archeology takes care of this darbar.
Ranaojeshwori Bhagwati Temple This temple is situated at Bhagwati tole within Tansen, district headquarters of Palpa.
Tansen Darbar Constructed by Pratap Shumsher, this palace is situated in the middle of the district headquarters. It was the main administrative center of west Nepal during Rana Rule. This palace is three storied in square shape. Since it consists many rooms and big halls, this palace accommodates 5-6 offices.
Srinagar Just above Tansen Bazaar, there is a nice view of Srinagar Hill. It is at an altitude of 4,100 ft. above the sea-level. It has an archeological importance.
Siddababa It is situated at Dobhan VDC of Palpa district near Siddhartha highway, 36-37 km away from the district headquarters. You can reach Siddababa from Butwal, 3 km away.
Nuwakot Gadi It is situated at Dovan VDC of Palpa district. Towards north, it is at distance of one hour walk from Siddhartha Highway. A Bhairav temple built by Sen Kings stands here.
Mathagadi It is situated at Godadi VDC of Matha gadi. It is still unknown who and when it was built this gadi (fort). It still stores the weapons of warriors. There is a small temple nearby and a stadium as well.
Satyawati Tal Satyawati Tal is situated at hilltop of the Kolada VDC. It is a beautiful lake located at the middle of green forest. One can enjoy real natural beauty.
Madan Pokhara It is situated at about 10-12 km away from the distrit headquarters. It is very good place for sightseeing. The place is good with agricultural prospects as well. There is a temple of Kokala Devi and famous Mandapya Rishi’s Tapobhumi.
Sita Kunda It is located at Darcha VDC; 60 km east of Tansen. The common belief is that Goddess Sita used to bathe at this Kunda (lake). It is really a beautiful place to see.
Ridi and Argali Ridi is situated at Argali VDC north-west from the district headquarters. This place is famous for various reasons. A temple of Rishi Keshav built by Madi Mukunda and other temples like Mukundeshwor temple, Ridi Gupha, Satyeshwor Mahadev are places of interest.
Baikuntha Dham This dham is situated at Siddeshwor VDC of far-west of Palpa district. There are many temples and most famous is Radha-Krishna temple. The place is accessible through passenger bus, running along Ridi-Ruru way. Drop at Argha, cross Ridi river, and walk for 20 minutes to reach the place.
Name of district Palpa Headquarter Tansen Area 2743 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Nawalparasi West: Arghakhanchi and Gulmi North: Syangja, Tanahun and Gulmi South: Rupandehi and Nawalparasi. Major rivers Kali Gandaki, Biniyee Khola, Tinau Khola, Ridi Khola, Kurung Khola, Barandi, Purba.River,and Nimdi. Location Longitude: 830 15”- 840 24” Latitude: 270 34”- 270 57” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical, temperate. Temperature Maximum: 23.30 C. Minimum: 14. 80 C. Rainfall 1,903.2 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Magar, Newari, Gurung, Tharu, Maithili, Rai, Sherpa, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Abadhi, Tamang, Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Tansen, Ridi, Ranighat, Palpa Bhairabsthan, Srinagar Hil, Nuwakotgadi, Jitgadi, Wakumgdi, Rishikesh and Mirkhande. Lakes and Ponds Suke Tal , Satyawati Tal Waterfalls Chharahare, Baikunthe Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center.
Nawalparasi This district is surrounded by Chitwan of Narayani zone in east, Rupandehi in west, Palpa and Tanahu districts in north and in the south it has its terminal with Uttar Pradesh (UP). Altitudes vary between 100 m to 1936 m above the sea level. Similarly, recorded temperature varies from 20.5 degree Celsius to 36 degree Celsius. Moreover, yearly rainfall has found to be 2145 mm.
Triveni Dham This pilgrimage site is situated at a distance of 34 km south from the headquarter Parasi in Susta VDC. This place is very famous for Hindus pilgrimage. It is known as Triveni (point where three meet) having three lakes (Pancha, Tamasha and Narayani). People believe taking bath in this river would receive goodwill of the God. This is the reason every year in the month of Magh, people observe a great festival, where many Nepalese including Indians take part.
Balamiki Aashram This area is located 2 km away from Triveni Dham. It is of great importance for Hindus. It lies beside Chitwan reserve and Tamasha River. Adi Kavi Priest Balmiki wrote about God Ram’s twin Lav and Kush’s childhood. This place has great significance because it deserves the legend of God Ram and his consort Sita.
Daunne Devi This place is situated at north-east of Dumkibas VDC at an altitude of 1023m, 30 km east from the district headquarters. This temple was established in 1880 B.S. People visit the place in festivals of Chaite Dashain. From the hill of Daunne, you can have the spectacular view of the plains in south. The place is popular for picnic and feast festivals.
Name of district Nawalparasi Headquarter Parasi Bazzar Area 935 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Chitawan, Tanahun and UP West: Rupandehi, Palpa and UP North: Palpa and Tanahun South: Chitawan and UP. Major rivers Narayani, Arun Khola, Kiran Khola, Jharahee, Dhonewa, Satbarte, Thrikha, khajhaaradi and Girwari. Location Longitude: 830 36”- 840 25” Latitude: 270 21”- 270 47” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical, Mild temperate. Temperature Maximum: 28. 90 C. Minimum: 20.50 C. Rainfall 1588.4 ml. Predominant language, culture Tharu, Abadhi, Nepali, Bhojpuri Magar, Newari, Gurung, Maithili, Tamang, Danuwar, Rai, Sherpa,Satar, Santhali, Limbu. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Parasi, Tribeni, Bazzar, Tribhuwantar, Suryapura, Nanda Tal, Bardhaghatand Palhi, Daunne. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Local Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Tilaurakot When the Buddha was born, Tilaurakot was the capital of his father King Suddhondhan’s kingdom. It is 27 kilometers (17 miles) west of proper Lumbini. Although the stupas, monasteries and palaces that Chinese travellers wrote about over two millennia ago no longer exist, the Nepalese have preserved the location of the town as a heritage site.
Kapilvastu This areas incorporates many historical places of Buddha’s time or even older than that. There are more than 120 archeologically important places such as Tilaurakot, Sugarhawa, Nigalalihawa, etc. which are in ruin today. This is the most important place in Nepal in terms of archaeology. Government has started reconstruction process in very few places. About 95% places are yet to be constructed.
Bolbam Dham This place is located at Paroha VDC. Bolbam Dham is also known as Shiva Dham. During the month of Shrawan festival is observed, when large number of people offer water to Lord Shiva from Laxmanghat in Kapilvastu district. Also, the people pour water from Narayani Lake. They believe, pouring water to God will fulfill their wishes. People wear yellow dresses when they visit this place.
Kapilvastu Museum Located in Tilaurakot about 26 km (16miles) from Lumbini, the place of Buddha, this museum contains interesting collection of coins, pottery, toys and other artifacts dating back to the 7th century AD. Also displayed are some unique jewellery pieces of that period.
Lumbini-The birthplace of Lord Buddha Shakyamuni Buddha was born in Lumbini, in southern Nepal, twenty-five hundred years ago. Since his time, Nepal has been the sacred ground for Buddhists as the birthplace of the Buddha. Lumbini is a small town, where the ruins of the old city can still be seen. Shakyamuni Buddha was born to a royal family. Lumbini has been a holy ground for Buddhists all over the world. The restored garden and surroundings of Lumbini have the remains of many of the ancient stupas and monasteries. A large stone pillar erected by the Indian Emperor Ashoka in 250 BC bears an inscription about the birth of the Buddha. An important part of Lumbini is the temple of Maya Devi. It has a stone image of Maya Devi giving birth to Lord Buddha as she holds onto a branch. It has been well worn by the strokes of barren women hoping for fertility. To the south of the temple is a pool where Queen Maya Devi is said to have bathed and given her son his first purification bath. A quiet garden, shaded by the leafy Bodh tree (the type of tree under which Buddha received enlightenment), and a newly-planted forest nearby lend an air of tranquility. Lumbini is now being developed under the Master Plan of the Lumbini Development Trust, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the restoration of Lumbini and its development as a pilgrimage site. The plan, drawn in 1978 by a Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, will transform three square miles of land into a sacred place of gardens, pools, buildings, and groves. The development includes a Monastic Zone, the circular sacred Garden surrounding the Ashoka pillar and Maya Devi temple, and Lumbini Village, where visitors will find lodges, restaurants, a cultural center and tourist facilities. An important archeological site near Lumbini, Kapilvastu evokes the ancient palace where Lord Buddha spent his formative years. Scattered foundations of the palace are abundant, and archeologists have by now discovered 13 successive layers of human inhabitation dating back to the eighth century BC. Besides its religious and historical significance, Lumbini offers cultural insights into the village life of southern Nepal. Serious preservation work has only just been started in the latter half of this century and Lumbini as a slice of history is worth seeing and worth preserving.
Access: NepalAirlines and other private airlines fly regularly to Bhairahawa, near Lumbini, and bus services are available from Pokhara and Kathmandu.
Accommodation: There are several good hotels and lodges in Lumbini.
Name of district Kapilbastu Headquarter Taulihawa Area 1544 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Rupandehi West: Dang and India North: Arghakhanchi and Dang South: India Major rivers Arra, Ban Ganga, Kothi and Surai. Location Longitude: 820 43”- 830 14” Latitude: 270 25”- 270 48” Climate Tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.60 C. Minimum: 17. 90 C. Rainfall 1588.4 ml. Predominant language, culture Abadhi, Tharu, Nepali, Newari, Magar, Gurung, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Rajbanshi, Sunuwar, Rai, Sherpa. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Taulihawa, Krishnanagar, Pattharkot, Tilaurakot, Nighihawa, Gotihawa, Kudan and Shiwagadi. Lake And Ponds Banjha Tal, Sagara Tal, Juwa Tal, Sisawa Tal, Niglee Tal, Bijuwa Tal. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Bhairahawa Hugging the Indian border 40 kilometres (25 miles) south as the Himalayan crow flies, in sharp contrast to Tansen, Bhairawa, the Tarai’s second- largest industrial centre, turns out the hard stuff of Nepal’s liquor trade from a modern distillery and also refines sugar, rice and oil. There is also another British base, 5 km (three miles) outside the town, which signs up more of the stout Gurkha military stock.
Where to stay Pashupati Lodge, Siddhartha Nagar, Bhairawa-Lumbini Hotel, Bhairawa, Hotel Himalayan Inn, Bhairawa, Hotel Kailash, across from the Post Office, Annapurna Lodge, west of the Post Office on the same road, Mamata Lodge, across from the bus terminal near the border with India, Jai Vijay Lodge restaurant, across the bus terminal are some of the place for accomodation.
Name of district Rupandehi Headquarter Bhairahawa Area 1172 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Nawal parasi and Palpa West: Kapilbastu and (UP.) India North: Palpa South: (UP) India Major rivers Baghela, Danab, Koilajham, Kanchan, Koth, Mahab, Rohini and Tinau. Location Longitude: 830 10”- 830 30” Latitude: 270 20”- 270 45” Climate Tropical Temperature Maximum: 28.30 C. Minimum: 20.50 C. Rainfall 1588.4 ml. Predominant language, culture Bhojpuri, Abadhi, Nepali, Tharu, Newari, Gurung, Magar, Sherpa, Limbu, Tamang, Rai, Sunuwar, Rajbanshi, Danuwar. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Bhairahawa, Butawal, Lumbini, Parroha, Anandaban, Manigram Paklihawa. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics, and Medical Collage.
Rukum Rukum is one of the historical places of Nepal. Earlier Baise states like Rukum, Musikot , Banphikot, Gotamkot and Jajarkot were under Rukum area. Even Rukum was governed under Sallyan and Jajarkot and it was declared as a separate district in 1961 A.D. Headquarters of Rukum is Musikot. Traingular shaped Rukum is flatter in south with the area of 1,939sq. km. Altitude varies from 762 m to 6,072 m. Though the people are agrarian, there is lack of cultivating lands. Animal husbandry, agriculture, trade and business are main occupations of the people. Some also go for foreign jobs. Main commercial market are Nepalganj, Dang and Butawal. Rukum is surrounded by hills, thus it has become difficult for the development activities to take place in the district. Pokhara- Surkhet Highway somehow is beneficial to the area.
Name of district Rukum Headquarter Musikot Area 1939 Sq. km. Political Boundary East: Baglung and Dolpa West: Jajarkot North: Jajarkot, Dolpa and Baglung. South: Rolpa Major rivers Thuli Bheri, Sani Bheri, Jaheri. Location Longitude: 820 12”- 820 53” Latitude: 280 29”- 290 0” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine. Temperature Maximum: 23. 30 C. Minimum: 14. 80 C. Rainfall 1444.5 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Gurung, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Newari, Tamang, Satar. Communication Post Office, Wire less Tourist attraction centers Musikot, Rukumkot, Chaurjahari, Banflkot, Gatakot. Lakes and Ponds Shyardaha, Kamal Pokhari. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinic.
Rolpa Surrounded by many lekhs (hillocks), Rolpa is biggest district of Rapti Zone. Dare Gaida, Ghamire, Jaljala, Dhuri Rangsi, Laha, Gulung Dhuri, Jamkot, Thumikot, Samahi, Pole are all hillocks (Lekhs) of the district. The district was formed as a single in 1961 A.D.
Among all the kings of the area, Ghare Baitam of Baija conquered all the kings (Magars). “Rol” means number and “pa” means remaining in local language, acknowledges that Rolpa is formed by remaining kings from others. Area of the district is 2,194 sq. km. Most occupation of the population is agriculture trade and animal husbandry; also some people go to the foreign countries for job. Liwangis headquarter of Rolpa.
Name of district Rolpa Headquarter Liwang Area 2194 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Pyuthan and Baglung West: Salyan and Jajarkot North: Baglung, Jajarkot and Rukum South: Salyan and Pyuthan. Major rivers Bheri, Lungri, Madi Khola, Sharada Khola and Nausaya Khola. Location Longitude: 820 10”- 830 0” Latitude: 280 8”- 280 38” Climate Sub-tropical, Mild temperate, Cool temperate. Temperature Maximum: 23. 30 C. Minimum: 14.80 C. Rainfall 1109.6 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Magar, Gurung, Newari, Sherpa, Maithili, Tharu, Tamang, Abadhi, Limbu. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Liwang, Thawang, Jaljaladhari, Bhamaodar, Sunchahari. Accommodation facilities Road connection, Airways Accessibility Local Lodge Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinic
Sallyan Sallyan was a place of considerable importance in the past as an administrative center for a much larger area which included Rolpa, Rukum and Jajarkot Surkhet. Sallyan was also one of the first native states among the Baisi (twenty two) principalities of the far west with whom Prithivi Narayan Shah had established contacts. Sallyan is famous for ginger powder and its typical clothes called Thetuwa. Sallyankot included 17 kots (Forts). In 1961 A.D. Sallyan was declared as a separate district from other forts. The district has an area of 1,343 sq. km. The highest land is 3,049 m above sea level. Mahabharata and Korbang ranges adorn the district. Gandharva, Badi, Raute including other tribes live in. Agronomy form the source of economy of the district. Thetuwa clothes, Khukuri, Knives are other famous products of the area.
Name of district Salyan Headquarter Khalanga Area 1,343 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Pyuthan and Rolpa West: Surkhet North: Jajarkot and Rolpa South: Dang and Pyuthan. Major rivers Bheri, Sharada, Siwang Khola, Arung Khola. Location Longitude: 820 0”- 820 49” Latitude: 270 53”- 280 31” Climate Sub- tropical, Mild- temperate. Temperature Maximum: 23. 30 C, Minimum: 14. 80 C. Rainfall 1,109. 6 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Gurung, Magar, Limbu, Newari, Sherpa, Tamang. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Chandani Khalanga Bazaar, Phalwang Rekh Bazaar, Chayachitra, Chopighat, Laxmipur, Kuvinda Daha. Lakes and Ponds Kubhinde Daha Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health, Post, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Pyuthan Pyuthan is situated in Rapti Zone, on north-east part of mid western development region. Pyuthan is surrounded by Gulmi, Arghakhachi and Rolpa districts on the east, Salyan and Dang on the west, Rolpa, Salyan and Arghakachi to the north and Salyan, Dang and Argakhachi to the south.
Swargadwari The place is known as a heaven gate from where five Pandavs brothers and Droupadi with their dog attempted to go heaven. Sworgadwari, the famous religious spot lies in the remote area of the district. Its importance is admired since 1952 B.S. Founder of this pilgrimage was Mahaprabhu Shree 108 Hamsnand Giri, who was born in Rimti of Rolpa district. The holy fire still flames, which began in 1952 B.S. Bus transport is available from Dang regularly. Ghuguti, Tinpure Dhuri, Syaulibang separate the district from Rolpa and Baglung. Jhimaruk river hydropower supplies the electricity in the area. Dangbang and Bangesal village have good cultivating land in Jhimaruk area. Agriculture and animal husbandry are main occupation of the people.
Name of district Pyuthan Headquarter Pyuthan Area 1,365 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Arghakhanchi, Gulmi and Rolpa. West: Salyan and Dang North: Rolpa, Salyan and Arghakhanchi South: Salyan, Dang and Arghakhanchi. Major rivers Rapti, Jhimruk, Manadabi. Location Longitude: 820 30”- 830 0” Latitude: 270 55”- 280 25” Climate Sub- tropical, Mild- temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.30 C. Minimum: 14. 80 C. Rainfall 1,294.5 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Newari, Magar, Gurung, Sherpa, Rai, Limbu, Maithili, Rajbanshi. Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Khalanga, Bhitrikot, Bijwar Bazzar, Swargadwari, Bhinrikot. Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics.
Dang Dang is the most developed district and commercial center of Rapti Zone. Originally the zonal capital was based in Dang. Ghorahi and Tulsipur are the main commercial hubs for whole Rapti zone. Since the district has two wide low elevated Inner Tarai valleys, it has better transportation and communication facilities than the four other districts of the zone (Pyuthan, Salyan, Rolpa and Rukum).
The two inner Tarai valleys making up most of Dang district are called Dang and Deukhuri. If one travels north from the edge of the Indo-Gangatic plain at Nepal’s border with India, one would first climb gradually through a forested alluvial belt, then more steeply to about 1,000 meters to cross one hill of the Siwalik Range. Descending less steeply down the northern side, the agricultural Deukhuri Valley would be traversed for about ten kilometers, crossing the westward-flowing Rapti River and Nepal’s main east-west highway. At the northern edge of Deukhuri valley, a second, slightly higher hill of the Siwalik Range would be crossed, then would follow into the Dang Valley, spreading to 15 or 20 kilometers. Dang is about a hundred meters higher than Deukhuri and is drained to the west by the Babai River. Several spur roads from the east-west highway cross the hills into Dang, which is the more populated and developed.
The Dang and Deukhuri valleys were originally a malarial belt mainly populated by the Tharu ethnic group that had lived there long enough to develop resistance, apparently via the Sickle Cell Disease trait, and to develop architectural and behavioral countermeasures. The use of DDT for mosquito suppression in 1960s opened the district to settlers from the Middle Hills, who shared land with Tharus, often reducing the Tharus to sharecroppers.
Finally from the northern edge of Dang Valley, there is a steep 1,500 meter climb to the crest of the Mahabharata Lekh at the northern border of the district where the hill districts of Pyuthan, Rolpa and Sallyan begin.
Name of district Dang Headquarter Tribhuwannagar Area 2798 sq, km. Political Boundary East: Pyuthan, Arghakhanchi, Kapilbastu and India. West: Surkhet, Banke and India North: Salyan, Pyuthan and Argakhanchi. South: Banke, Kapilbastu and India Major rivers Rapti, Babai, Chame Khola, Chamai Khola, Sisne, Hapur, Sewar, Gowar. Location Longitude: 820 2”-850 54” Latitude: 270 37”- 280 21” Climate Tropical, Mild- temperate Temperature Maximum: 28.90 C. Minimum: 20. 50 C Rainfall 1387.9 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tharu, Abadhi, Magar, Newari, Gurung, Maiyhili, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Rai, Rajbanshi, Sherpa, Limbu, Tamang, Sunuwar.
Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Tribhuwannagar, Tulsipur, Godhawa, Koilabas, Chaughera Lakes and Ponds Bahrakunedaha, Charange. Waterfall Puran Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Centers, Clinics
Ratannath Temple Ratannath Temple, situated in Dang in mid-western region, is one of the most famous temples of the western part of Nepal. The temple is consecrated to Ratannath the disciple of Gorakhnath and the founder of Nath sect.
Humla Humla is a one of the remotest districts of Nepal. Simikot, the district headquarters, is 440 km from Kathmandu and 218 km north of Nepalgunj. For the Humlis, who visit their main market, Nepalgunj , it is a journey of about three weeks. To others, Humla is a mere jingle word appended with Jumla. Humla also provides a pilgrimage passage to Manasarovar and Kailash.
Humla one of the five districts in the Karnali zone, is the second largest district of Nepal, with an area of 5655 sq. km. It has an elevation fluctuating between 1524 m – 7337 m, and an approximate population of 45,000. The Humla natives still speak archaic dialect of Nepali and Tibetan languages. Its capital is Simikot, which is 218 kilometer north of Nepalgunj.
There is an old milestone beside the road on the hill above Simikot with an inscription “Hanuman Dhoka dekhi 179 kos”, which means it is 576 km far from Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. Visiting Humla is best in spring.
Name of district Humla Headquarter Simikot Area 5,655 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Mugu and Tibet West: Bajura, Bajhang and Tibet North: Tibet South: Mugu, Bajhang and Bajura. Major rivers Humla, Karnali, Tin Khola, Takche, Chyangle, Chala, Chungsa, Tangin,Tanke, Kwadi. Location Longitude: 810 18”- 820 10” Latitude: 290 35”-300 10” Climate Temperate, Cool-temperate Alpine Temperature Maximum: N.A. Minimum: N.A. Rainfall 686.3 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tamang, Sherpa, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Gurung. Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Simikot, Darma, Limi, Reling, Kharpunath. Himalayan Peaks Nalkankad, Saipal, Chalang, Tankha,Changla. Lakes and Ponds Jadya,-daha, Selim, lade, Nilapani. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinics
Mugu Karnali The village had numerous chortens and a Gumba is on a pine clad ridge above the village beyond which the snow of chhayanath (5917m) is visible. On the opposite side to the south, was the larger Mangri (2220m) village on a high ridge above the river.
Rara Lake Rara lake is located on the north slope of Ghurchi Lek (4086m.) and confined in the north by another lower ridge of 3,300 meters. Although the lake drains west through a narrow gorge, eastern barrier of the lake is hardly six meters high above lake surface and fall of the ground beyond this barrier is more than 1,370 meters steep below, bending eastwards to the Mugu river. The lake is ready-made reservoir if a tunnel were to channel down to Bhattechaur (1759m.) for hydro-power generation and the power could meet the needs of Jumla town and for the copper-melting works at Dalphu that was closed in early 1950’s for lack of timber fuel.
Rara National Park Situated about 370 km northwest of Kathmandu, Rara is Nepal’s smallest and most beautiful national park. Much of the park, at an altitude of about 3,000m, is forested with conifers. The park was established in 1976 and protects some of the most beautiful alpine and sub-alpine ecosystems of the Himalayas. The centerpiece is the pristine Lake Rara, also known as Mahendra Tal. The biggest hills is Chuchemara Danda at 4,087m, which is the best vantage point to get stunning views of the lake, thickly forested hillsides and the snow-capped peaks around it. Other summits in the park area are Ruma Kand (3,731m) and Malika Kand (3,444m), situated to the north of the lake.
Rara comes within the catchments area of the Karnali River, one of the three main river systems of Nepal. The habitat supports animal like the red panda, black bear, yellow-throated martin, ghoral, serow, and musk deer. There have also been reported sightings of leopard and wolf. The lake attracts migrant wildfowl like teals, pochards and mallards. Resident birds include the impeyan, kalij and blood pheasant as well as the others like the chukkor partridge. Such is the profusion of bird life in Rara but a thorough ornithological study of the area is yet to be conducted.
Name of district Mugu Headquarter Gamgadhi Area 3,103 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Dolpa and Jumla West: Humla North: Humla and Tibet South: Jumla Major rivers Mugu, Karnali. Location Longitude: 810 44”- 820 59” Latitude: 290 25”-290 59” Climate Temperate, Cool-temperate, Alpine. Temperature Maximum: N.A. Minimum: N.A. Rainfall 686.3 ml. Predominant culture Nepali, Sherpa,Tamang. Communication Post office, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Gamgadhi, Gam, Rara, Himalayan Peaks Kanjiroba, Sisne Himal, Patrasi Uttari Chuli, Chhayanath Chuli, Chankheli. Lakes and Ponds Raradaha, Rin Mokshayadaha, Chhayanathdaha Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic.
Access The easiest way to get to the Rara is by flight to Jumla from Kathmandu or Nepalgunj, followed by a three-day hike to the park office at Hutu. The alternative route is to take a bus from Nepalgunj to Surkhet, from where it is a week’s hike to the park. Visitors should travel with camping gear and guides which will offer them the flexibility to explore Rara where basic accommodation is available only at the park office. The best time to visit the region is from February to April and in October and November. It is also possible to combine a trek to Rara with a visit to Royal Bardia National Park and a river trip down the Bheri or Karnali rivers.
Jumla Jumla has three local names: Chaughan in historical records, Khalanga as an army garrison of 100 guns and Chhinasim as a local unit. The governor’s house, revenue building and shops near the Chandannath and Bhairavnath temple are located on a terrace on the left bank of the Ju Gad, tributary of the Tila River. On the right bank of the Ju Gad, in the new quarter of the town were the high school and the DDC building. The parade ground and hospital are on the north of the town and the stream flanked the irrigation channels leading to the paddy fields. There are a number of water- mills.
Jumla and Lake Kara South-west of Dolpo you are deep into Nepal’s mystical west - almost as closed and little-known as Dolpo. Yet it once nurtured a great kingdom of the Mallas. The Mallas kept a winter capital in the south of the Mahabharata Hills, at Dullu, and maintained a territory that stretched from the humid Tarai to the Taklahar in western Tibet over trails that few tackle. Jumla- Rara trek is one of the popular treks in western Nepal. Glimpses of cultures and scenery offered in this trek are different from those in the rest of Nepal. Rara, a high altitude lake with brilliantly clear water, ringed with pine spruce and juniper forests and snow capped Himalayan peaks is magnificent.
Name of district Jumla Headquarter Jumla Area 2,824 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Dolpa and Jajarkot West: Kalikot, Bajura and Mugu North: Mugu South: Dailekh, Jajarkot and Kalikot. Major rivers Tila, Karnali, Singa and Chotra. Location Longitude: 810 28”-820 18” Latitude: 280 58”-290 30” Climate Sub-tropical, Cool-temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximun: 18.60 C. Minimum: 5.70 C. Rainfall 563.3 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali, Jumli, Maithili, Gurung, Limbu, Sherpa, Newari, Bhojpuri, Tamang, Tharu, Magar. Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Khalang Bzzar, Hadsinga, Pandusera Gufa, Dansangu- Dobhan. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinic
Dolpa Dolpa is one of the hidden tourist destinations in Nepal. The rugged terrain and remoteness beautify district’s landscape. The district is rich in both nature and culture. It is situated in the north east part of Mid Western Development Region, covered with Himalayan mountains. The district lies completely on the trans Himalayan region of Nepal. It has a total area of 7967.70 sq. km. Dolpa is a largest but the least populated district in Nepal. Animal husbandry is the traditionally important activity for most Dolpa households. Transhumance is a way of life in much of northern Dolpa. It is the last stronghold of the Bonpo religion.
Ethnically Chhetris comprise the largest population in the district. Other ethnic groups in district include Gurung, Magar, Thakuris, Brahmin, Newar, Sherpa, Sarki, and Damai. Unlike other Magar, Dolpali Magars are Buddhist. Dunai is the district headquarters where the national park head is based. Visitor can get permit here for Shey-Phhoksundo National Park as well.
The Dolpa or Dolpo-pa settlements are concentrated in the remote and fascinating region, which is confined, by the Dhaulagiri Himalaya in the south and east, Sisne and Kanjiroba Mountain in the west and Tibet on the north. They generally settle at altitudes between 3,660 m (Approx. 12,000 ft.) and 4,070m (14,000 ft. approx.). They are probably the highest settlements in the world. These mongoloid featured people are Tibetan speakers. Most of them are illiterate, but they are not very poor. Marriages are very relaxed. Pre-marital and extra-marital sex union is not prejudiced. All brothers in a family marry a common wife. Marriages can be of any type: by arrangement, capture or elopement. The Dolpalis are Buddhist, but the Bon-po sect of Buddhism also co-exists. They dispose off the dead in different ways. Some throw the corpse into the river while others cut the flesh into pieces and feed them to the vulture.
Culture and Religion The Bonpo tribal people (former Buddhist followers) of the area are unique in their cultural and social traditions. They speak Kaike language, which is believed to exist only in Dolpa. Perhaps, impressed by these unique features of Dolpa, the famous filmmaker Eric Valley chose the district for visualizing his Oscar nominee Caravan. He selected Thinley of local Saldang as the main character. Caravan is famous internationally, especially in France and the film is still shown in cinema halls of major cities of France.
Cultural Attractions Out of 130 Gumbas, 25 are regarded important, including the famed Shey Gumba. Saldang, Dho, Chharka and Bhijer VDCs have some of the oldest Nyingmapa monasteries in the Himalayan region. Most of the Nyingmapa monasteries of Saldang and Phoksumdo are over 700 years old.
Also, some of the oldest Bon-po monasteries in Nepal (Yungdung Gumba in Kaigaon, Pumma and Thashun Gumba in Phoksumdo) are in the region. Bon-po faith represents the adaptation of Buddhism in the old indigenous religion of western Tibet. Shen- rab is the supreme teacher in Bon-po.
Another aspect of Dolpa culture is the unique trade and transhumance-based livelihood strategies of Upper Dolpa exemplified in the film “Caravan”. While much of northern Dolpa is the domain of Buddhism, areas in southern Dolpa such as the temple of Bala Tripura Sundari in Tripurakot VDC are revered by both Hindus and Buddhists and large number of devotees come from the surrounding region for worship.
Shey Phoksundo National Park Shey is the name of Gumba, Phoksundo is pond. Shey Phoksundo, is the Nepal’s largest park and covers 3,555 sq km of land extending over Dolpa and Mugu districts. The park was established to protect Trans-Himalayan ecosystem. View from the park includes the Kanjiroba Himal, with many peaks over 6,000m, as well as the famous Shey monastery, the Phoksundo Lake and the Langu Gorge. The flora of the area includes pine, walnut, willow, oak, poplar, and cypress in the southern parts. In the higher altitudes, blue pine, spruce, juniper and birch predominate. The alpine areas are vegetated by berries, wild rose and caragana. The arid trans-Himalaya mountains and grassy alpine meadows to the north are almost devoid of trees but have caragana and dwarf juniper.
The wildlife of Shey Phoksundo include a good population of blue sheep and goral, musk deer, leopard, wild dog, wolf, marmot, weasel, mouse hare, rhesus and langur monkeys. The higher reaches are the haunt of the elusive snow leopard. The adjoining Tibetan region is home to such rare animals such as the great Tibetan sheep, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan gazelle and antelope, and wild yak. Bird species of the park include the impeyan, blood and cheer pheasant, chough, raven, Tibetan snow cock, Tibetan twit, brown dipper, Himalayan griffon and lammergeier. People of Tibetan descent who follow the pre- Buddhist born religion inhabit the park. Popular villages are Ringmo, Pugmo, Saldang, Karang, Kugun, and Tatgaun. On August full moon day, all Dolpa villagers converge on the Shey (crystal) Mountain in a festival to walk around the holy peak three times in a day. A large portion of the national park is closed to foreign visitors. Trekking permits are needed to visit the areas that are open.
Access The nearest airstrip is at Juphal, south of the park. Visitors can also fly to Jumla from where it is a 10 day hike to the Phoksundo and Shey areas. The best time to visit this park is from April to November.
Name of district Dolpa Headquarter Dunai Area 8093 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Mustang, Myagdi and Tibet West: Mugu,Jumla, Jajarkot and Rukum North: Tibet South: Myagdi, Baglung, Rukum and Jajarkot. Major rivers Bheri, Sangu,Sano Bheri suligah, Jugdulla and Tarap Khola. Location Longitude: 820 24”-830 38” Latitude: 280 24”- 290 43” Climate Mild –temperate, cool –temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 16.60 C. Minimum: 6. 90 C. Rainfall 499.4 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Sherpa, Maithili, Gurung, Bhojpuri, Limbu Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Dunai, Kotgaun, Tarakot, Tarpgaun, Rigmagaun,Chharka Bhotgaun, Segumba,Saldang, Yanjer and Kaigaun Himalayan Peaks Dhawalagiri, Churen Himal, Puttha Himchuli, Araniko Chuli, Sonata, Batuli Patan, Thange, Rigma. Lakes and Ponds Phoksundo, Jogdulla, Sundaha, Gamakunidaha, Rigma Tal, Putha Tal, Pungma Tal Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Kalikot Some years ago, the district was one of biggest three districts in Midwestern development region of Nepal. Religious and historical temple of Tripura Sundari Devi was in Kalikot, but later transferred to Dolpa. Kalikot was called Tibrikot in the past. Steep slopes made by rivers are major constraints for economical and infrastructure development of the district. Most people go Tibet, Nepalgunj or Rajapur for earning. Fruits and peanut grains are major crops of Kalikot. But due to transportation problem, the district lacks economic viability.
Name of district Kalikot Headquarter Manma Area 1790 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Jumla West: Bajura and Achham North: Mugu and Bajura South: Dailekh and Achham. Major rivers Kanali, Tila, Ruru, Banchu, Chumli Khola, Jatro Gadh and Tibgadh Location Longitude: 810 28”-810 02” Latitude: 280 57”-290 28” Climate Temperate, Cool- temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 18.60 C Minimum: 5.70 C Rainfall 730.0 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Jumli, Maithili, Gurung, Limbu, Sherpa, Newari Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Bhatra, Lalu, Manma Himalayan Peaks N.A. Lakes and Ponds Giridaga, Dahathekidaha, Shankhudaha, Bistadaha.Dhaulidaha, Joginidaha Waterfalls N.A. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinic
Dailekh Dailekh Bazaar (1280m), the headquarters of Dailekh district, is located on south- trending spur between the Lohare Khola in the east and the Chham Gad in the west. Bilaspur (1840m), the old site of the former rulers, now in ruins, is 3 km north of the present town. Numerous monuments, inscribed stone structures and stupas spreading around Dailekh are ample evidence that it once formed a part of the Khasa Malla empire. After the fall of Malla empire at the close of the 14th century, Dailekh became an independent state under Sansari Bhamya, whose descendants ruled until its subjugation by the Gorkhalis in 1790.
Name of district Dailekh Headquarter Dailekh Bazaar Area 1560 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Jajarkot and Kalikot West: Achham and Surkhet North: Kalikot South: Surkhet, Achham and Jajarkot Major rivers Karnali, Lohare, Chamgad and Paduka Location Longitude: 810 25”- 810 55” Latitude: 280 35”- 290 8” Climate Sub-tropical, Mild- temperate, Cool- temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.00 C. Minimum: 13.80 C Rainfall 1790.8 ml Predominant culture Nepali Communication Post Office, Telephone, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Dailekh Bazaar, Dullu, Sirasthan, Nabhisthan, Padukasthan and Dhungeswar Waterfall Dwari, Bhairavi Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinic, Health Center
Jajarkot Jajarkot (1220m) occupies a strategic location with a sweeping view of the Bheri and the plain of Chaur Jahari to the south. Jajarkot was one of the 22 principalities of the far west after the downfall of the Khasa Kingdom of Jumla. According to genealogy, Samal Thakuri, Jagati Singh became the rulers of Jajarkot with its capital at Jagatipur, 7 km south west of the Jajarkot. A local legend goes that horse of Jagati Singh always preferred to graze at the site. Capital was shifted to Jajarkot from Jagatipur during the reign of his grandson. Jagati Singh was a contemporary of Bali Raja (1398-1404 A.D.) of Jumla and his 18th descendant, Harihar Shah ruled during the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Harihar Shah and Prithvi Narayan Shah met in 1643 during their pilgrimage to Benaras and the two signed a treaty of friendship that proved useful during the Gorkhali expansion in the far west.
Name of district Jajarkot Headquarters Jajarkot Area 2218 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Rukum, Dolpa and Rolpa West: Dailekh and Kalikot North: Dolpa and Kalikot South: Salyan, Surkhet and Rukum. Major rivers Bheri, Sama and Tator Location Longitude: N.A, Latitude: N.A. Climate Sub-tropical, Cool –temperate, Alpine. Temperature Maximum: 23.00 C. Minimum: 13.00 C Rainfall 1868.5 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Maithili, Newari, Gurung, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Khalanga Bazzar, Jagatipur, Paika, Ramidanda Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road Connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Health Center, Clinics
Surkhet Surkhet is 68 km north of Nepalgunj; a 15-minutes flight from that town, crossing first over dry plains and forests of Banke and then the Chure range separated into two jagged ridges by the left of the Babai valley. The northern slope of the Chure covered with pines slopes gently towards Bheri. The first glimpse of central Surkhet gives good impression amidst pine forests and the predominant the yellow color of the mustard crop and paddy stubbles. Surkhet valley in the past was reputed for its endemic malaria. Until a few decades ago there were only a few permanent villages of Tharus who had migrated from Dang. Except during winters, the nearby hill farmers retreat to their upland villages by dusk after the day’s toil on the valley fields. Bulbule Tal, Deuti Bajai, Latikoili are interesting places to see.
Name of district Surkhet Headquarter Birendranagar Area 3185 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Salyan and Dang West: Kailali, Doti and Bardiya North: Jajarkot, Dailekh, Doti, Achham and Salyan South: Banke, Bardiya, and Kailali. Major rivers Karnali, Babai, Bheri, Sharada, Nikash Location Longitude: 800 59”- 820 2” Latitude: 280 14”- 280 58” Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical, Mild temperate Temperature Maximum: 27.60 C. Minimum: 14.60 C Rainfall 1611.9 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Tharu, Magar, Gurung, Maithili, Limbu, Sherpa, Tamang Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Birendranagar, Kankre-Bihar, Latikoili Mandir, Bayalkanda Gadhi, Siddhapaila Lakes and Ponds Simrakhanidaha, Jajura Tal, Baraha Tal, Bulbule Tal Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connections, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Bardiya The Royal Bardiya National Park is situated on the eastern bank of the Karnali River, about 400 km west of Kathmandu. The park is 968 sq. km in area and extends from the Churia hills southward to the gentle slopes of the ‘Bhabhar’. The higher grounds of the Churia have dry deciduous forest of mostly hardwood sal. The porous slopes of the Bhabhar have large open grassland known locally as ‘Phantas’. These are some of the last remaining grasslands that once covered much of the Gangatic plains of north India but transformed into the ‘rice bowl’ of the sub-continent. The western end of the Bardiya is surrounded by numerous water-ways of the Karnali which created many large and small gravel islands. The mosaic of grassland and reverine forest of acacia, sesame and the large buttressed silk cotton trees cover these islands and much of the lower ground. In spring, the silk cotton blooms and the forest comes alive with scarlet flowers.
Bardiya is the home to wide variety of animals, many of which live in and around the phantas. The open grasslands such as Baghora and Lamkoili are the best places to view animals, the most conspicuous of which is the spotted deer. Other ungulates include black buck, hog deer, samber deer, wild boar and barasingha or swamp deer. Two species of monkeys, the langur and the rhesus macaque are also found. Both tiger and leopard haunt this reserve and it is not uncommon to see one of these predators.
The park is also famous for its small herds of wild elephants, rarely seen. Recently the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation relocated a few one-horned rhinos from Chitwan into Bardiya and in a few years they are likely to become one of the main attractions in the park. The parks also has a small population of the rare gharial, the marsh mugger crocodile and the Gangetic dolphin. The island of the Karnali River harbors the sub-continent’s largest antelope species, the nilgai or blue bull. The Karnali and the Babai rivers attract the large number of wintering waterfowl along with resident species such as herons, kingfishers and wall creepers. More than 350 species of birds have been recorded in Bardiya, truly a bird watcher’s paradise. Bardia has few facilities for tourists. Visitors are expected to have prior bookings while in Kathmandu or travel with camping support. The most rewarding way to look for wildlife is on land rover drives through the park, nature walks and boat rides down the rivers. An interesting alternative is to follow the trade route up the west bank of the Karnali gorge from Chisapani. For the angling enthusiast, the river also offers fishing for mahseer. Bardiya is ecologically similar to Chitawan, but wilder and less explored.
Access To reach Bardiya, take the daily air flight or public bus from Kathmandu to Nepalgunj, from where it is a five-hour drive to the park office at Thakurdwara. This nature sanctuary is best visited in between November and April. Name of district Bardiya Headquarter Gulariya Area 1608 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Banke and Surkhet West: Kailali and India North: Surkhet South: India Major rivers Karnali, Babai, Mannala Location Longitude: 810 3”- 810 41” Latitude: 280 7”- 280 39” Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.50 C Minimum: 17.70 C Rainfall 2099 ml Predominant language, culture Tharu, Nepali, Abadhi, Guring, Newari, Bhojpuri, Magar, Sherpa, Rai, Danuwar, Limbu, Tamang Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Gulariya, Rajaur, Khasapdanaha and Tinkothiya Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connections, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Nepalgunj The westernmost city in Nepal and capital of that region, Nepalgunj is an industrial centre on the Indian border. It has a population of approximately 60,000 and little to commend it to the tourist.
In the middle of town lies Birendra Chowk, an intersection named for the late king. It has a statue. From Birendra Chowk, the airport is 6 km to the north. The Mahendra Airport is named after late King Mahendra. The major places in Nepalgunj for visit are Gharbaritole, Ganeshpur, Sadar Line, Koreanpur, Belaspur, B.P. Chowk. There are many private high schools in this part of Nepal. The oldest one among them is Angels High School situated in Gharbaritole. It has Medical College along with other colleges. It also has good facility for lodging and food. It connects underdeveloped districts such as Dolpa, Jumla, Mugu by airways.
The border is at the distance of 6 km to the south. It is one of the limited of places where non-Indian foreigners are allowed to cross the border with India. Khajura, Mahendranagar, Bayapur, Baghouda, Bhoj, Bhagawanpur also are main places to visit in Banke. Banke is a one of the districts under ‘Nayamuluk’ and is well developed in terms of social, economical and administrative activities. Banke means the people coming in from Banki place.
Banke has the area of 2,024 sq. km. Different ethnic and indigenous communities and tribe live here but Tharus dominate others. Sometimes, 300 members constitute a family. Agriculture is the base of economy. Trade and commerce are getting momentum.
Name of district Banke Headquarter Nepalganj Area 2024 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Dang and India West: Bardiya North: Surkhet and Dang South: India Major rivers Rapti, Mankirin, Dundawa Location Longitude: 810 29”- 820 8” Latitude: 270 51”- 280 20” Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.80 C. Minimum: 16.20 C. Rainfall 1263.6 ml. Predominant culture Abadhi, Tharu, Nepali, Magar, Newari, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Guring, Tamang Communication Telephone, Post Office, Wireless, Cell phones Tourist attraction centers Nepalganj,Chatar, Khajura, Mahendranagar, Bhagauda, Bhoj, Bhagawanpur Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge, Guesthouse Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinic, Ayurvedic Centers
Khaptad National park Khaptad National Park, covering 22,500 hectares (225 sq. km) of land, is located in the Far Western Development Region, at a distance of 446 km from Kathmandu. The area lies at the crossing point of Bajahang, Doti and Achham districts under Seti zone.
Khaptad is an isolated massif with the highest point 3,300m above the sea level. It has a rolling plateau of extensive grassland interspersed with oak and coniferous forests, shrubberies and buggy areas. The slopes of the massif are thickly vegetated with broad leaved and coniferous forests and bamboo stands. The park covers unique ecosystem of the mid-hill region of far western Nepal. The core area of Khaptad is of religious significance. Khaptad is important for nature conservationists mainly because of the wide variety and rare species of plants in the forests. Khaptad area covers various climatic zones, such as sub tropical, sub alpine, upper temperate, lower temperate with different types of flora and fauna. During the field visits, about 270 types of birds, 20 shrubs, 30 different plants, 50 herbs, 20 butterflies and various types of wild animals were recorded.
A meditation area, including religious places and the Ashram (Hermitage) of Khaptad Swami, a renowned spiritual saint, is located in the central part of the park. The park also includes the important religious places like Trebeni, Shahashra Linga, Khaptad Daha (Lake) and Ganesh Temple. Alcohol, cigarettes and tobacco, violence and killings are strictly prohibited in these religious sites.
Khapatad Baba’s Hermitage is about 20-minute walk from both park headquarters and the army barrack. It is surrounded by dense forest. The hermitage provides a beautiful mountain view on the north. Trebeni, confluence of three rivers, is about 20-minute walk from the park headquarters. On the day of Jestha Purnima, a fair called Ganga Dashahara is held at Trebeni. Thousands of people join the fair. There are numerous temples in the Tribeni area, of which the Shiva’s is the most important one.
Similarly, Ganesh temple is one and half hour walk from the park headquarters. Khaptad Daha (lake) lies at an altitude of 3,050m. It is an hour’s walk down the park headquarters. On the full moon day of Bhadra, a fair is held. Shahashra Linga is the highest point (3,300m) of Khaptad, 2-hour walk from the park headquarters. Suki Daha is a small lake, located at about a day’s walk from park headquarters.
An alpine grass slope without trees is called ‘Pathan’. Pathan area has only flowers and grass with medicinal values. According to local people, there are 22 Pathans within the Khapatad National Park. Nagdhunga, the stone with the serpentine shape, is another religious place. It is at the distance of one and half hour walk from the park. Likewise, Kedardhunga is located close to Trebeni. It is the religious place dedicated to Kedarnath, Hindu God.
Khapatad provides a beautiful view of snow peaks to the north. These are Saipal, Api-Nampa and Surma Sarovar. Similarly, to the east, Shankhamala peak is seen from Lokhada. You can also see Malika and Badi Malaka peaks. The park’s entry point is on the Bajhang side.
The best seasons to visit this place are April to July and October to November. Most important time to visit Khaptad area is Jestha 15 to Ashad 20 (June) if it is not raining. Khaptad Baba once kept weather records of the whole year and only 28 days saw fair weather out of 365 days.
Although, mid and far western regions have various attractions for tourists but unfortunately the western region of Nepal, especially beyond Dhaulagiri, are most backward in terms of socio-economic development. However, the regions have virgin lands. First is lack of infrastructure and second is the absence of information. Thus, many places of the western region remained unexplored. There are hardly any trekkers going west in Jumla. Similarly, only few mountaineering expeditions are launched in western Nepal. The poor status of tourism activities in western Nepal is best illustrated by the number of visitors to the protected areas: In 1990, Nepal recorded 45,950 visitors to the various parks and reserves. Of this 29,991 of 65.3 percent went to Royal Chitwan Park alone. The number of visitors to the western parks is very low: 412 to Bardiya, 259 to Sukla Phanta and 7 to Khaptad. The number of visitors to Khaptad has declined over last few years.
Joint promotion of Khaptad National Park with Bardiya National Park and Sukla Phata National Park will definitely increase the duration of tourist visiting and staying here. Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation should provide the tourists with every detail of Khaptad, Bardiya, Sukla Phata National Parks. The ministry of tourism and civil aviation should make necessary arrangements for additional services.
Rafting on Seti, Karnali, and Bheri rivers is highly feasible. Upon arrival at Dipayal, tourists can raft down the Seti to Karnali. They can continue to Bardiya National Park. From Bardiya, they can proceed to Sukla Phata by the highway, which is under construction. Resorts and drinking water facilities should be developed at places along the route. For those going to the park via Doti, lodging facilities should be managed at Silgadhi Dipayal, Jhigarna and Bichkopani. Similarly, on the Bajura side, Martadi, Dongri, Kanda, Singro need to be developed. There is need to build more for travelers at Chainpur Sunar Gaon, Bajang Chhanda, Daru Gaon and Lokahada. Local entrepreneurs should be encouraged for this with loan facilities.
Similarly, there is need for developing camping sites at appropriate places. The entrance fee to the national parks in the west should be reduced to the half of Chitwan National Park to attract more tourists. A tourism information center should be established at Dipayal to survey and promote the places of interest for tourists in the west of the Karnali river. The department of tourism and department of national parks and wildlife conservation should cooperate to produce a promotion campaign on Khaptad National Park.
Name of district Bajhang Headquarter Chainpur Area 3449 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Bajura, Humla and Doti West: Baitadi and Darchula North: Humla and Tibet South: Doti Major rivers Seti, Kailigad, Mormi, Sunigad, Dilgad Location Longitude: 800 46”- 810 34” Latitude: 290 29”-300 9” Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Alpine Temperature MaxImum: 18.60 C Minimum: 5.70 C Rainfall 1343.9 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Bhojpuri, Gurung, Maithili, Sherpa, Limbu Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Chainpur, Jayaprithivinagar, Surama Sarowar, Thalhawa Hmalayan Peaks Saipal Nampha, Bankialekh, Kapkot, Khyurikhola. Lakes and Ponds Shurma Sarovar, Nilkhati, Kund, Khapar, Dhaha, Hila Daha, ,Raksya Tal Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connections, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Center, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center
Bajura Bajura district lies in the north-east of Khaptad Naional Park. The district headquarters is Martadi. The name Martadi was derived from Martanda Rishi. The important religious temples such as Badimalika and Kailashmandu could become important tourist attractions. The major ethnic groups in this district include Chhetri, Thakuri, Brahmin, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Kumal and Chunar. Polyandry tradition exists among Bhotia and Sauka communities.
Locals worship in Jijulekand and Badimalika temples. Shamanism has great influence. Major festivals of Bajura are Dasain, Tihar, Fagu, Daval Jatra and Sain Kande Jatra. Bajureli Deuda and Bhuwa dances are very popular in the region for their uniqueness. Bajura is an extremely backward district located in the most western part of Nepal. National per capita income is NRs 9,600, while the per capita income of Bajura is around NRs 3,940. The total population of the district is 107,926 under 19,771 households.
Name of district Bajura Headquarter Martadi Area 1589 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Humla, Mugu and Kalikot West: Bajhang and Doti North: Humla and Bajhang South: Kalikot and Achham. Major rivers Budhi Ganga, Karnali, Kawadi, Kunna Location Longitude: 810 9”- 810 49” Latitude: 280 18”-290 57’ Climate Sub-tropical, Temperate, Cool-temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 18.60 C. Minimum: 5.70 C Rainfall 1343.0 ml Predominant language, culture Nepali, Maithili, Limbu, Sherpa, Gurung, Tamang, Bhojpuri Communication Post Office, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Martadi, Tante, Malika, Nateswari, Chededaha, Khaptad Lake. Himalayan Peaks Saipal Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Doti The former Doti Kingdom included not only Doti district; it was expanded up to Achham, Bajhang, Bajura, Dadeldhura, Baitadi, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Darchula, extending as far as Dehradun and Kumaun Garwal. The story of ‘Deuki’ practice dominates the tradition of the region. History of Doti kingdom is little known. Doti was the capital of that kingdom. Deuki tradition, basically, is practiced not in proper Doti but nearby districts including Dadeldhura, Baitadi and Darchula. During the reign of King Nagi Malla in the 17th century, western Nepal was in ruin. Natural calamities, drought and cholera consumed his Kingdom. The priests predicted that relief would come if the king offered his daughter to the temple of Bhageshwor Mahadev. Housing facilities were immediately prepared, and the princess began her life with the Gods. When the difficulties in the kingdom were eased, a new tradition was born, that has grossly degenerated and now mars the image of cultural purity that Nepal would proudly claim.
Chhaupadi Tradition The traditions prevailing in the far western region in Nepal is mainly women dominated. During the period of menstruation, the females have to live in small huts, separate from their family. But, it is gradually eroding.
Name of district Doti Headquarter Silgadhi Area 2916 sq. km Political Boundary East: Achham, Kailali and Surkhet West: Dadheldhura, Baitadi, Bajhang and Kanchanpur North: Bajhang and Dadheldhura South: Kailali, Kanchanpur and Surkhet Major rivers Seti, Budhi Ganga, Karnali, Thuligad Location Longitude: 800 30”-810 14” Latitude: 280 52”-290 28” Climate Sub- tropical, Cool- temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximun: 23.00 C Minmum: 13.80 C Rainfall 860.8 ml Predominant culture Nepali, Gurung, Bhijpuri, Mathili, Limbu Sherpa, Abadhi, Tamang Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Silgadhi, Khaptad Lake, Malikasthan, Jarayal, Dipayal Lakes and Ponds Khaptaddaha Waterfalls Bhelchhada , Jorpani Accommodation facilities Hotel, Lodge Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Achham Achham district, a part of Seti zone, with Mangalsen as its headquarters, covers an area of 1,680 sq km and has a population of 231,285 (2001).
Mangalsen, the district headquarters, is eight-hour walk from Sanfebagar - a town in Achham encompassing a domestic airport. A seasonal road exists from Sanfebagar to Mangalsen but is often closed during monsoon season. A bridge is under construction across Budhi Ganga River in Sanfebagar which will allow vehicles to cross the river during high-flood season.
As in other district, the major ethnic groups in the district are Chhetris. They include Kunwar, Swanr, Rawal, Bogati, Khati, Rokka, Khatri, Kathayat, Bhandari, Bista, Batala, Saud, Dhami, Bohara, and Thakulla. The Brahmins include Devkota, Bajagain, Dhungana, Regmi, Joshi, Rijal, Bhattarai, Bista, Dhakal and Mundbhari.
Achham resembles Doti with regard with culture. Major festivals include Narsing, Jhayali, Deuda and Chhoti Nachney.
There are several important religious places along the bank of holi river Budiganga, including confluence of Budiganga and Saraswati as described in the Skanda Puran. They present important scope for religious tourism development.
Name of district Achham Headquarter Mangalsen Area 1372 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Dailekh and Kalikot West: Doti and Surkhet North: Bajura and Kalikot South: Surkhet and Doti Major rivers Karnali Budhi Ganga, Seti, Malagad, Kailash Khola Location Longitude: 810 7”- 810 35” Latitude: 280 45”-290 22” Climate Sub- tropical, Mil- temperate, cool- temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.00 C Minimum: 13.80 C Rainfall 1790.8 ml Predominant culture Nepali, Gurung Maithili, Limbu, Bhojpuri, Tamang Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Mangalsen, Jayagadh, Gajara, Ramaroshan Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Dhangadhi Dhangadhi is the headquarters of Seti Zone that includes far-flung places as Saipal near Tibet. The growth of town owed much to the extension of railway up to Gauri Phanta across the border originally for timber transport.
Kailali district is situated in far western region of Nepal in Seti Zone. The district was returned to Nepal from East India Company in 1860 AD. Hansuliya VDC in Kailali is a village where a fort was located between 1968 and 1978. The district got its name from the fort.
Most part of the district lies in Tarai belt with varying the altitude ranging from 179 m to 1,957 m above sea level. Dhangadhi is the headquarters of the district as well. The rectangular-shaped district covers an area of 2,742 sq. km. Most people are Tharus. Agronomy is the base of economy, where Karnali, Mohana, Patheraiya, Kada Kamara, Surmi Rivers provides water for cultivation of the land. Dhangadhi is the prime commercial hub. Dhangadhi-Dadeldhura Highway would become the backbone for the development of Kailali.
Name of district Kailali Headquarter Dhangadi Area 2742 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Bardiya and Surkhet West: Kanchanpur and Doti North: Surkhet and Doti South: India Major rivers Karnali, Mohana, Pothraiya, Karrha, Kanara Location Longitude: 800 15”- 810 15” Latitude: 280 22- 290 0” Climate Sub- tropical, Temperate, Cool- temperate Temperature Maximum: 30.50 C Minimum: 17.70 C Rainfall 1577 ml Predominant culture Tharu, Nepali, Sherpa, Abadhi, Newari, Maithili, Bhojpuri Magar Tamang, Gurung, Limbu Rajbansi, Danuwar. Communication Post office, Wireless, telephone Tourist attraction centers Dhangadhi, Lalpurbari, Chaumala, Hansulia, Bhajanai Malkheti, Tikapur Lakes and Ponds Shyarpudaha, Kamal Pokhari Accommodation facilities Hotel Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, health post, Health Center, Ayurvedic Center and Clinics
Darchula Situated between two district and borders connected with China and India, Darchula lies under Mahakali zone in far western region. Dhar literally means edge in Nepali and Chula means fire place, thus, the district derives its name today. Legends say that in ancient time Hermit Byas cooked rice on the top of two peaks. Himalayan peaks to look include Byas Rishi Himal. Other connotation connects with the Tibetan word ‘La’ which means hilly bye pass, from where people used to go Tibet. Darchula has the area of 1,867 sq. km. Agriculture is the basis of economy. Residents nearby Byas Himal and are called ‘Byasi’or ‘Sauka’.
Name of district Darchula Headquarter Darchula Area 1867 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Bajhang West: India North: Tibet South: Baitadi and Bajhang. Major rivers Mahakali, Chaulane, Tinkar, Numpa, Kalagad Location Longitude: 800 22”-810 9” Latitude: 290 36”-300 15” Climate Tropical, Sub- tropical, Cool temperate, Mild, temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: 18.60 C Minimum: 5.70 C Rainfall 14.33.8 ml. Predominant language, culture Nepali,Maithili, Sherpa, Gurung, Limbu, Satar. Communication Post Office, Wireless. Tourist attraction centers Khalang, Tapoban, Gokuleswar, Tinkar, Jaljibi. Himalayan Peaks Api Himal, Byas Rishi, Nampa Himal, Jaskar Himal. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connections Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinics
Baitadi Baitadi district is situated in Mahakali Zone. The district headquarters is Baitadi Bazaar which is locally known as Gadi (fort). The place is located on the southern slopes of Shahi Lekh (1,611m). Settlement is crowded along a narrow street. There are some government offices and about two dozen shops with a small park dedicated to martyr Dasarath Chand. The commercial activity is very minimal, compared to the nearby Pithoragarh, about 7 km west across the border in India. It is, however, on the main trail from Jhulaghat part of Dadeldhura, Doti and Bajhang. Jhulaghat is an important trade outlet for some of the far western districts.
Name of district Baitadi Headquarter Baitadi Area 1578 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Doti and Bajhang West: Darchula and India North: Darchula and Bajhang South: Dhadeldhura. Major rivers Mahakali, Chaulane, Surnaya. Location Longitude: 800 15”- 810 04” Latitude: 290 22”- 290 57” Climate Tropical, Temperate, Mild –temperate, Alpine Temperature Maximum: N.A. Minimum: N.A. Rainfall 1242.5 ml Predominant Language, culture Nepali, Maithili, Sherpa, Gurung, Abadhi, Newari, Satar, Communication Post Office, Wireless, Telephone Tourist attraction centers Khalanga Bazaar, Shahi lekh, Gothalapani, Sera Gaun, Patan, Jhulaghat, Patal Bhumeswar. Himalayan Peaks Bankaiya Lek Accommodation facilities Local Lodges Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Centers, Clinics
Dadeldhura Dadeldhura lies in inner Tarai and with mountain under Mahakali Zone. The summer capital used to be in Ajmer court. Dadeldhura covers 1,7699 sq. km of land with Khalanga as its capital. Dadel means like backbone and Dhura means peak. Economy is based on agriculture. Women population is higher than of men. Opening of Dhanagadhi- Dadeldhura Highway added some opportunities for income to the people.
Name of district Dadeldhura Headquarter Dadeldhura Area 1769 sq. km. Political Boundary East: Doti West: Baitadi and India North: Baitadi South: Kanchanpur. Major rivers Mahakali, Seti, Roongon, Surnayagad. Location Longitude: 800 12- 800 47” Latitude: 290 1”-290 26” Climate Sub- tropical, Mild- temperate, Cool–temperate Temperature Maximum: 23.00 C Minimum: 13.80 C Rainfall 1242 ml Predominant Language culture Nepali Abadhi,Maithili, Gurung, Sherpa, Bhojpuri, Limbu. Communication Post office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Khalanga, Jogbudha, Kesharpur. Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connection Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Ayurvedic Center, Clinics
Kanchanpur Kanchanpur in the Mahakali Zone is Nepal’s western most district in the Tarai and shares its southern and western borders with India. Its population is one of the fastest growing in the country, mainly due to migration from the northern hills and partly due to the influx of the Tharus from adjoining districts in the east. In 1971, Kanchanpur had the population of 68,863; in 1991 it increased almost by four folds to 257,906 and in 1998 number increased to 337,240 – an increase by 31 percent in seven years. The district is divided into 11 Ilakas (sub-districts), 19 VDCs and one municipality – Mahendra Nagar. Forest covers some 54 percent of its area including 311 sq. km under a Wildlife Reserve. Over 36 percent land is under cultivation and 20 percent of it is irrigated.
Only a few decades ago, Kanchanpur was a malarial forest inhabited by the indigenous Tharus. But today, ti has become heterogeneous. In 1871, the Tharus represented 43 percent of the total population; in 1991 the proportion, despite immigration, stood at only 27 percent. The Tharus are swamped by non-Tharu migrants from the hills. The hill tribes in the district composed of Brahman (15%), Chhetri (28%), Kami(10%), and Sarki (13%). Others include Thakuri, Sanyasy, Tamang, Magar and Damai. The overall literacy rate of Kanchanpur is 59.3 percent – female 45.2 percent in 1999, the latter being higher than the national average. However, 27 percent children between 6 to 10 years of age still do not go to School.
Shuklaphanta Reserve This wildlife reserve is situated in the extreme southwest of Nepal, along the eastern bend of the Mahakali River. There are series of large and small grasslands fringed by forest made up primarily of sal. The name of the park is derived from the largest of this grassland which is known as Sukla Phanta. The park area of 155 sq. km was originally the hunting grounds for the one-time Rana rulers of Nepal.
Sukla Phanta’s grassland is one of the last remaining habitat for endangered animals such as hispid hare and the pygmy hog. Besides these, Sukla Phanta is the stronghold for another endangered animal, the Barasingha, or swamp deer. The grassy conditions seem to be ideal for the large deer and their number has been dramatically increased to more than 2,000 in recent times.
Other wildlife of the park includes spotted deer, also seen in large numbers, hog deer, nilgai, wild dog, jackal, porcupine and otter. The park and the adjoining forest is the territory of small number of tigers which because of open terrain are not uncommon to sight on the prowl. Wild elephants were also sighted in park. According to local villagers, they are attracted by the rice crops during the monsoon season.
A stop at the Rani Tal is a must. This small lake attracts birds and animals alike. Herons, ducks, storks, kingfisher and egrets vie for food and swamp deer wallow at the edges. One can watch thousands of water fowl mingling on the lake surface while it is not uncommon to see hundreds of swamp deer grazing at the water-edge in the evening light. The experience is unique. Few tourists have visited the lesser-known trails of western Nepal, in spite of the presence of the Royal Bardiya Reserve. The Mahendra Highway, linking east and west, will inevitably encourage more visitors to the region.
Karnali, part of the Royal Bardiya Reserve, located on the eastern bank of the Karnali River, is a sanctuary for the endangered swamp deer. Tiger Tops runs Karnali Tent Camp, with accommodation for up to 16 guests. Shukla Phanta in Kanchanpur district, in the westernmost reaches of Nepal, is one of the few places in the country where the endangered blackbuck is found. Other ways to view wildlife in the park is by driving in land rovers near the lake and river, and on nature walks with trained trackers. Accommodation and outing are best prearranged through agents in Kathmandu. Visitors should travel with tents, food and transport.
Mahendranagar Mahendranagar, about 270 meters about sea level, is a new settlement in the middle of a forest with the foothills visible to the north. The place was first cleared in 1962 when the district headquarters was shifted here from Belauri on the southern border. The main east-west street is lined up by a group of new houses made from plentiful timber. There are about two dozen shops. Apart from the hataru (marketer) from Dadeldhura, Doti and Baitadi, the place is already swarmed with squatters from the hills. The place has easy link with Tanakpur railhead, about an hour’s walk to the west. It is one of the major commercial place in the region. Moreover, as the zonal headquarters with 29 government offices, Mahendranagar claims primacy in managing the affairs of the entire Mahakali Zone that extends as far as 154 kilometers to the north.
Dhami Pratha The Dhami partha (Shamanism) is common in the region and decision he makes is acceptable to people as a word from god.
Access There are weekly air flights from Kathmandu to the nearby Mahendranagar airstrip. Bus service from Nepalgunj is regular during dry months. The best time to visit is from November to April.
Name of district Kanchanpur Headquarter Mahendanagar Area 1663 sq.km. Political Boundary East: Kailali and Doti West: India North: Daleldhura South: India. Major rivers Mahakali, Mohana, Syauli, Chaughar, Wahamani, Dhanda, Chandar. Location Longitude: 800 3"- 800 33" Latitude: 280 32"-290 8" Climate Tropical, Sub-tropical Temperature Maximum: 30.50 C Minimum: 17.50 C Rainfall 1422.7 ml Predominant language and culture Nepali, Tharu, Abadhi, Gurung, Maithili, Newari, Sherpa, Bhojpuri, Limbu, Sunuwar Communication Post Office, Wireless Tourist attraction centers Mahendranagar, Belauri, Singhapur Lakes and Ponds Rani Tal Accommodation facilities Local Lodge Accessibility Road connection, Airways Medical facilities Hospital, Health Post, Clinics

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